Matsu or Ma-tsu (mä´dzōō´), Taiwanese island, in the East China Sea, off Fujian prov., China, E of Fuzhou, and c.100 mi (160 km) from Taiwan. Along with Quemoy, it remained a Chinese Nationalist outpost after the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949. The People's Republic of China began bombarding the island again in 1958, but the deployment of the U.S. 7th Fleet prevented an escalation of the hostilities. After 1990 Taiwan reduced the military forces stationed on Matsu, civilian rule was restored in 1993, and restrictions on travel to the island were ended in 1994. Limited direct travel to and trade with the mainland has been permitted since Jan., 2001.