Pierre Mauroy (pyĕr môrwä´), 1928–2013, French politician. Educated at the École National d'Apprentissage de Cachan, he was a teacher and an active member of the new Socialist party from the 1960s. During the 1970s, he was second only to François Mitterrand in the party. As premier (1981–84) under President Mitterrand, his government accomplished such liberal reforms as abolishing the death penalty, increasing paid vacation, cutting the workweek, lowering retirement age to 60, and increasing welfare benefits. However, Mauroy's credibility did not survive Mitterrand's economic move to the right and Laurent Fabius became premier. He defeated Fabius for the party leadership in 1988 and worked to unify the party for future elections until he was replaced by Fabius in 1992. Mauroy served in both French legislative houses and in the European Parliament, and was also mayor of Lille (1973–2001).