Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (mäkäpägäl´-ärō´yō), 1947–, Philippine political leader, president of the Philippines (2001–10), daughter of Diosdado Macapagal. A professor of economics, she entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary (1987–89) and undersecretary (1989–92) of trade and industry under President Corazon Aquino. After serving in the senate from 1992 to 1998, she was elected vice president and became social welfare and development secretary (1998–2000) under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned from his cabinet and joined the opposition to the president, who was soon impeached.
She succeeded Estrada in 2001 after street demonstrations forced him out and the supreme court declared the presidency vacant. Macapagal-Arroyo was elected to the office in her own right in 2004, but her win was marred by vote-rigging charges, and later (2007) in her term her husband was implicated in a kickback scandal. She was elected to the Philippine congress in 2010 and reelected in 2013. In 2011 she was charged with involvement in vote fraud during the 2007 senate elections, and she was charged with corruption and other offenses in 2012.