Moscow Conferences, meetings held between 1941 and 1947 at Moscow, USSR. At a conference in Sept.–Oct., 1941, American and British representatives laid the basis for lend-lease aid to the USSR in World War II. In Aug., 1942, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and W. Averell Harriman, representing U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, met with Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin to discuss the opening of a second front in Europe. The third conference (Oct., 1943), attended by the American, British, and Russian foreign ministers, resulted in the pledge to establish a United Nations organization for the maintenance of peace. At the fourth Moscow Conference (Oct., 1944) Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin discussed the political difficulties of Poland and agreed on armistice terms for Bulgaria and a joint policy with respect to Yugoslavia. For the foreign ministers' conferences held at Moscow in 1945 and 1947, see Foreign Ministers, Council of.