National Parks and Monuments ( (table))

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

National Parks and Monuments ( (table))

National Parks and Monuments

National Parks and Monuments
BF Battlefield
BP Battlefield Park
BS Battlefield Site
HP Historical Park
HS Historic Site
HT Historic Trail
IS International Historic Site
LS Lakeshore
MM Memorial
MO Monument
MP Military Park
MR Monument and Preserve
NR Reserve
NP Park
PA Preserve and Addition
PE Park and Expansion
PO Park, other
PP Park and Preserve
PS Preserve
PW Parkway
RA Recreation Area
RI River
RR River and Recreation Area
SS Seashore
ST Scenic Trail
WS Wild or Scenic River or Riverway
National Parks
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
American Samoa NP American Samoa 1988 9,000 (3,645) Two rain forest preserves and a coral reef.
Arches NP E Utah 1929 76,519 (30,979) Giant arches formed by erosion; designated a national park in 1971.
Badlands NP SW S.Dak. 1929 242,756 (98,316) Gullies, ridges, and other erosional landforms; fossils. See badlands.
Big Bend NP W Tex. 1935 801,163 (324,471) Canyons and desert plain on the Rio Grande; Chisos Mts. Designated a national park in 1944.
Biscayne NP SE Fla. 1968 172,924 (70,010) Aquatic park encompassing 25 islands. Example of a living coral reef; includes part of Biscayne Bay. Enlarged and designated a national park in 1980.
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NP W Colo. 1933 30,300 (12,272) Deep, narrow canyon of the Gunnison River, named for its dark-colored walls, which are always in shadow; designated a national park in 1999.
Bryce Canyon NP SW Utah 1924 35,835 (14,513) Canyon with colored walls and rock formations.
Canyonlands NP SE Utah 1964 337,598 (136,679) Rocks, spires, and mesas; Native American rock art and ruins.
Capitol Reef NP S Utah 1937 241,904 (97,971) Highly colored sandstone cliffs dissected by gorges; named for a white, dome-shaped rock.
Carlsbad Caverns NP SE N.Mex. 1923 46,766 (18,940) Great limestone caverns. Designated a national park in 1930.
Cuyahoga Valley NP NE Ohio 1974 32,950 (13,334) Preserves rural character of Cuyahoga River Valley.
Channel Islands NP SW Calif. 1938 249,354 (100,988) Part of the Channel Islands. Nesting sea birds, sea lions, the island fox, and unique plants.
Crater Lake NP SW Oreg. 1902 183,224 (74,206) Blue lake in a volcanic crater.
Congaree NP Central S.C. 1976 21,888 (8,862) Last significant tract of southern bottomland hardwood forest in the United States.
Death Valley NP SE Calif., SW Nev. 1933 3,367,628 (1,363,412) Lowest point in Western Hemisphere; desert environment.
Denali PP S Alaska 1917 6,075,690 (2,459,794) Contains Denali (Mt. McKinley), North America's highest mountain (20,310 ft/6,190 m); wildlife preserve.
Dry Tortugas NP S Fla. 1935 64,701 (26,195) Contains Fort Jefferson, the largest all-masonry fort in the Western Hemisphere, built 1846. See Dry Tortugas.
Everglades PE S Fla. 1934 1,508,580 (610,761) Subtropical wilderness with prairies, mangroves, great variety of birds. See Everglades.
Gates of the Arctic PP N Alaska 1978 8,472,527 (3,430,173) Vast wilderness within the Arctic Circle.
Glacier NP NW Mont. 1910 1,013,572 (410,497) Glaciers, forests, and lakes; on the Continental Divide.
Glacier Bay PP SE Alaska 1925 3,283,246 (1,329,249) Glaciers, ice displays.
Grand Canyon NP NW Ariz. 1908 1,217,403 (492,876) Great gorge of the Colorado River. See Grand Canyon.
Grand Teton NP NW Wyo. 1929 309,993 (125,503) Scenic portion of the Teton Range; Jackson Hole.
Great Basin NP Nev. 1986 77,180 (31,258) Features Lehman Caves, an ice field on Wheeler Peak, ancient bristlecone pines, and a limestone arch. See Great Basin.
Great Sand Dunes PP S Colo. 1932 84,670 (34,257) Large, high sand dunes in the Sangre de Cristo Mts.
Great Smoky Mountains NP N.C., Tenn. 1926 521,621 (211,183) Wild, beautiful area in the Great Smoky Mountains.
Guadalupe Mountains NP W Tex. 1966 86,416 (34,998) Mountain region; contains a limestone fossil reef.
Haleakala NP Maui Island, Hawaii 1916 29,824 (12,074) Haleakala crater; rare and endangered species.
Hawaii Volcanoes NP Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1916 209,695 (84,926) Volcanic region; lush vegetation.
Hot Springs NP W central Ark. 1921 5,549 (2,247) Mineral springs.
Isle Royale NP NW Mich. 1931 571,790 (231,575) Forested island in Lake Superior.
Joshua Tree NP S Calif. 1936 1,022,703 (414,050) Rare Joshua trees, or "praying plants" ; named by Mormons because of upstretched arms.
Katmai PP SE Alaska 1918 4,093,229 (1,657,178) Deep forest with lakes and active volcanoes.
Kenai Fjords NP S Alaska 1978 669,983 (271,248) Wilderness preserve, vast ice fields, fjords, and outflowing glaciers.
Kings Canyon NP E central Calif. 1890 461,901 (187,070) Canyons, peaks, sequoias.
Kobuk Valley NP NW Alaska 1978 1,750,737 (709,048) A wildlife preserve north of the Arctic Circle; archaeological remnants of 10,000 years of human habitation.
Lake Clark PP S Alaska 1978 4,030,058 (1,631,602) Waterfalls, tundra, and active volcanoes.
Lassen Volcanic NP N Calif. 1907 106,372 (43,081) Volcanic peaks and lava formations.
Mammoth Cave NP Central Ky. 1926 52,830 (21,396) Longest recorded cave system in the world.
Mesa Verde NP SW Colo. 1906 52,122 (21,109) Prehistoric cliff dwellings.
Mount Rainier NP SW Wash. 1899 235,625 (95,395) Volcanic peak and glaciers; subalpine meadows.
North Cascades NP N Wash. 1968 504,781 (204,436) Area of noted alpine scenery in the Cascade Range; bisected by Ross Lake National Recreation Area.
Olympic NP NW Wash. 1909 922,651 (373,674) Rain forests and glaciers in the Olympic Mountains.
Petrified Forest NP E Ariz. 1906 93,533 (37,881) Petrified logs; portions of the Painted Desert.
Pinnacles NP W Calif. 1908 26,006 (10,524) Rock spires from 500 to 1,200 ft (150 to 365 m) high; caves.
Redwood NP NW Calif. 1968 112,430 (45,518) Coastal redwood forests.
Rocky Mountain NP Central Colo. 1915 265,723 (107,580) Scenic Rocky Mountains region on the Continental Divide; many high, snowcapped peaks.
Saguaro NP SE Ariz. 1933 91,443 (37,021) Saguaro, other cacti, varied desert growth.
Sequoia NP E Calif. 1890 402,510 (162,960) Groves of giant sequoias.
Shenandoah NP N Va. 1926 198,081 (80,195) Forested region of the Blue Ridge Mts.
Theodore Roosevelt NP W N.Dak. 1947 70,447 (28,531) Part of Roosevelt's Elkhorn Ranch; badlands along the Little Missouri River.
Virgin Islands NP Virgin Islands, on St. John 1956 14,689 (5,949) Unusual scenery, marine life, coral gardens; ruins of Danish colonial sugar plantations.
Voyageurs NP N Minn. 1971 218,200 (88,340) Scenic northern lakes region; interesting glacial features and history.
Wind Cave NP SW S.Dak. 1903 28,295 (11,459) Limestone caverns in the Black Hills.
Wrangell–St. Elias PP SW Alaska 1978 13,176,371 (5,334,563) Largest unit in the National Park System; numerous peaks over 16,000 ft (4,900 m), abundant wildlife.
Yellowstone NP Wyo., Mont., Idaho 1872 2,219,791 (899,015) Geysers and hot springs, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone; first national park.
Yosemite NP E Central Calif. 1890 761,266 (308,205) Mountain region with Yosemite Valley.
Zion NP SW Utah 1909 146,592 (59,349) Multicolored canyon in a desert region.
National Monuments
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Agate Fossil Beds MO NW Nebr. 1965 3,055 (1,237) World-famous quarries containing numerous well-preserved Miocene mammal fossils; museum of Native American artifacts.
Agua Fria MO Central Ariz. 2000 71,100 (28,796) A Native American settlement system dating to AD 1250–1450, spread over two mesas and the Agua Fria River canyon; more than 450 sites with pueblos, stone forts, and petroglyphs.
Alibates Flint Quarries MO NW Tex. 1965 1,371 (555) Flint quarries, first worked by Native Americans c.10,000 years ago; rich archaeological and historic area.
Aniakchak MR SW Alaska 1978 602,779 (244,040) Volcano; wilderness and wildlife preserve.
Aztec Ruins MO NW N.Mex. 1923 319 (129) Ruins of a Pueblo town.
Bandelier MO N N.Mex. 1916 33,677 (13,634) Ruins of 13th-century Pueblo cliff dwellings.
Belmont-Paul Women's Equality MO Washington, D.C. 2016 .8 (.3) Sewall-Belmont House and Museum, headquarters of the National Woman's party.
Booker T. Washington MO Central Va. 1956 224 (91) Birthplace and childhood home of Booker T. Washington.
Buck Island Reef MO Virgin Islands, on Buck Island 1961 880 (356) One of the finest marine gardens in the Caribbean; bird rookeries and grottoes.
Cabrillo MO SW Calif. 1913 137 (55) Memorial to Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo.
California Coastal MO W Calif. 2000 Thousands of islands, rocks, and reefs within 12 mi (19 km) of California's 840-mi (1,350-km) coastline as well as Point Arena-Stornetta on the mainland; includes nesting grounds of seabirds and marine mammals.
Canyon de Chelly MO NE Ariz. 1931 83,840 (33,955) Ruins of prehistoric Native American villages.
Canyons of the Ancients MO SW Colo. 2000 164,000 (66,420) Rugged landscape that is archaeologically rich, with some sites dating to 10,000 years ago; later pit houses, cliff dwellings, and pueblos.
Cape Krusenstern MO Alaska 1978 649,182 (262,828) Archaeological sites of indigenous communities dating back 4,000 years.
Capulin Volcano MO NE N.Mex. 1916 793 (321) Huge cinder cone of inactive volcano.
Carrizo Plain MO W central Calif. 2001 204,000 (82,560) Grasslands and wetlands, including akali Soda Lake, in Central Valley. Home to threatened or endangered species.
Casa Grande MO S Ariz. 1892 473 (191) Huge building built c.600 years ago, in the ruins of a Native American pueblo.
Cascade-Siskiyou MO S central Oregon 2000 52,000 (21,060) A biologically diverse and ecologically unique area that also includes Soda Mountain, Pilot Rock, and Siskiyou Pass.
Castillo de San Marcos MO NE Fla. 1924 20 (8) Old Spanish masonry fort in Saint Augustine, Fla.
Castle Clinton MO SE N.Y. 1946 1 (.4) See Battery, the.
Cedar Breaks MO SW Utah 1933 6,155 (2,493) Amphitheater (2,000 ft/610 m deep) formed by erosion.
Chiricahua MO SE Ariz. 1924 11,985 (4,854) Odd-shaped rock formations.
Colorado MO W Colo. 1911 20,534 (8,313) Huge monoliths and other unusual erosional features.
Craters of the Moon MO S Idaho 1924 53,440 (21,636) Volcanic cones, craters, fissures, lava flows.
Devils Postpile MO E Calif. 1911 798 (323) Basaltic columns, some 60 ft (18 m) high.
Devils Tower MO NE Wyo. 1906 1,347 (546) Volcanic rock tower; first national monument.
Dinosaur MO Colo., Utah 1915 210,278 (85,133) Rich quarries of well-preserved fossils.
Effigy Mounds MO NE Iowa 1949 1,481 (600) Outstanding examples of prehistoric Native American mounds.
El Malpais MO N.Mex. 1987 114,277 (46,282) In English, "the badlands" ; volcanic area; also rich in Pueblo history.
El Morro MO W N.Mex. 1906 1,279 (518) Sandstone monolith with inscriptions of Spanish explorers and American pioneers.
Florissant Fossil Beds MO Central Colo. 1969 5,998 (2,429) Well-preserved insect, seed, and leaf fossils of the Oligocene period; petrified sequoia tree stumps.
Fort Frederica MO SE Ga. 1936 241 (98) Ruins of a fort built by James Oglethorpe on one of the Sea Islands.
Fort McHenry MO N Md. 1925 43 (17) See Fort McHenry.
Fort Matanzas MO NE Fla. 1924 228 (92) Spanish fort in Saint Augustine, Fla.
Fort Pulaski MO SE Ga. 1924 5,623 (2,277) Fort on Cockspur Island. See Fort Pulaski.
Fort Stanwix MO Central N.Y. 1935 16 (6) See Fort Stanwix.
Fort Sumter MO SE S.C. 1948 195 (79) Scene of the engagement that opened the Civil War. See Fort Sumter.
Fort Union MO NW N.Mex. 1954 721 (292) Ruins of a U.S. army fort on the Santa Fe Trail.
Fossil Butte MO W Wyo. 1972 8,198 (3,320) Area containing Paleocene-Eocene fossil fish.
George Washington Birthplace MO E Va. 1930 627 (254) Estate and reconstructed mansion. See Wakefield.
George Washington Carver MO SW Mo. 1943 210 (85) Birthplace and boyhood home of George Washington Carver.
Giant Sequoia MO E Calif. 2000 328,000 (132,742) Last remaining 34 groves of ancient sequoia trees within Sequoia National Forest.
Gila Cliff Dwellings MO SW N.Mex. 1907 533 (216) Well-preserved dwellings built by the Pueblo into a 150-ft (46-m) cliff.
Governors Island MO SE N.Y. 2003 22 (9) Early 1800s fortifications in New York harbor and their surroundings.
Grand Canyon–Parashant MO NW Ariz. 2000 1,014,000 (410,670) Canyons, mountains, and buttes on the W portion of the Grand Canyon's north rim. Prehistoric and 19th-century remains; rare condors and tortoises.
Grand Portage MO NE Minn. 1951 710 (288) 9-mi (14-km) portage on the route to the Northwest used by explorers, missionaries, and fur traders.
Grand Staircase–Escalante MO S Utah 1996 1,700,000 (688,000) Rock formations; natural arches and bridges; prehistoric dwellings and rock art; fossil sites.
Hagerman Fossil Beds MO S Idaho 1988 4,351 (1,762) Fossils dating from the Pliocene era.
Hanford Reach MO S central Wash. 2000 195,000 (78,975) Free-flowing nontidal stretch of the Columbia River with salmon spawing grounds and the shrub-steppe ecosystem originally typical of the river basin.
Hohokam Pima MO Central Ariz. 1972 1,690 (684) Archaeological remains of the Hohokam culture.
Homestead MO SE Nebr. 1936 195 (79) Site of the first farm claimed under the Homestead Act.
Honouliuli MO Oahu, Hawaii 2015 Site of a World War II internment and prisoner of war camp that held Japanese and European American citizens and immigrants.
Hovenweep MO Utah, Colo. 1923 785 (318) Prehistoric Native American pueblos and cliff dwellings.
Ironwood Forest MO S Ariz. 2000 129,000 (52,245) Mountainous desert landscape with large stands of ironwood trees; saguaro forests and bighorn sheep; historic Hohokam sites.
Jewel Cave MO SW S.Dak. 1908 1,274 (516) Limestone caves with chambers connected by narrow passages; in the Black Hills.
John Day Fossil Beds MO N central Oregon 1974 14,014 (5,676) Consists of Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, and Clarno locations. Its rich fossil remains extend over four prehistoric periods.
Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks MO N central N.Mex. 2001 4,114 (1,665) Canyons, cliffs, and cone-shaped rock formations with nesting birds.
Katahdin Woods and Waters MO N central Maine 2016 87,500 (35,400) Mountains and wilderness in Maine's North Woods.
Lava Beds MO N Calif. 1925 46,560 (18,857) Examples of volcanism; scene of Modoc uprising.
Little Bighorn Battlefield MO SE Mont. 1879 765 (310) Site of the battle between five companies of the Seventh Cavalry, commanded by George Armstrong Custer, and the Sioux and Cheyenne.
Minidoka Internment MO S Idaho 2001 73 (30) Site of a World War II internment camp for Japanese Americans. See relocation center.
Montezuma Castle MO Central Ariz. 1906 858 (347) Well-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings.
Muir Woods MO W Calif. 1908 554 (224) Virgin stand of coastal redwoods.
Natural Bridges MO SE Utah 1908 7,636 (3,093) Three huge natural sandstone bridges.
Navajo MO NE Ariz. 1909 360 (146) Ruins of large cliff dwellings.
Newberry MO Central Oregon 1990 50,500 (20,453) Caldera of a 500 sq mi (1,300 sq km) volcano, with lava flows, cinder cones, and the Lava Cast Forest.
Ocmulgee MO Central Ga. 1934 702 (284) Remains of prehistoric temple mounds.
Oregon Caves MO SW Oreg. 1909 488 (198) Limestone caverns with four levels; rock formations.
Organ Pipe Cactus MO S Ariz. 1937 330,689 (133,929) Unique Sonoran Desert plants and animals.
Petroglyph MO N.Mex. 1990 7,232 (2,928) More than 15,000 prehistoric and historic Native American and Hispanic petroglyphs and rock art carvings.
Pipe Spring MO NW Ariz. 1923 40 (16) Spring first visited by the Mormons; old fort.
Pipestone MO SW Minn. 1937 282 (114) Quarry that was a source for Native American peace pipes; park includes Upper Midwest Indian Cultural Center.
Pompeys Pillar MO S central Mont. 2001 51 (21) Large sandstone butte on Yellowstone River with inscription by William Clark.
Poverty Point MO NE La. 1988 911 (369) Remains of a 2d millenium BC culture.
President Lincoln and Soldier's Home MO Washington, D.C. 2000 2.3 (.9) Historic Anderson Cottage, used as a summer retreat by Lincoln and other presidents.
Pullman MO Chicago, Ill. 2015 203 (82) America's first planned industrial town; factories and buildings associated with the Pullman Palace Car Company.
Rainbow Bridge MO S Utah 1910 160 (65) Pink sandstone arch.
Russell Cave MO NE Ala. 1961 310 (126) Cave containing a nearly continuous archaeological record of human habitation from about 7000 BC to AD 1650.
Salinas Pueblo Missions MO Central N.Mex. 1909 1,071 (434) Four 17th-century mission churches and ruins of three Pueblo villages.
Scotts Bluff MO W Nebr. 1919 3,003 (1,216) Landmark on the Oregon Trail.
Sonoran Desert MO SW Ariz. 2001 486,000 (196,684) Biologically diverse desert with mountain ranges and lowland valleys. Historical and archaeological remains.
Statue of Liberty MO SE N.Y. 1924 58 (23) See Liberty, Statue of.
Stonewall MO SE N.Y. 2016 7.7 (3.1) Stonewall Inn and environs, site of 1969 Stonewall riot, the beginning of the modern gay-rights movement.
Sunset Crater Volcano MO N Ariz. 1930 3,040 (1,231) Volcanic cinder cone with multicolored crater.
Timpanogos Cave MO N Utah 1922 250 (101) Limestone cavern on Mt. Timpanogos.
Tonto MO Central Ariz. 1907 1,120 (454) Well-preserved 14th-century cliff dwellings built by Native Americans in the Salt River valley.
Tuzigoot MO Central Ariz. 1939 801 (324) Excavated ruins of a large Native American pueblo.
Upper Missouri River Breaks MO N central Mont. 2001 377,346 (152,825) Rugged, remote ecosystem paralleling the Upper Missouri National Wild and Scenic River; explored by Lewis and Clark.
U.S. Virgin Islands Coral Reef MO Virgin Islands, off St. John 2001 12,000 (4,856) Mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs, home to many sea animals and birds.
Vermilion Cliffs MO N Ariz. 2000 293,000 (118,577) Remote cliffs, plateaus, canyons, and desert grasslands; fossilized dinosaur footprints.
Walnut Canyon MO N Ariz. 1915 3,579 (1,449) 12th-century Sinagua cliff dwellings.
White Sands MO S N.Mex. 1933 143,733 (58,212) Wind-drifted gypsum sands.
Wupatki MO N Ariz. 1924 35,422 (14,341) Several prehistoric pueblos.
Yucca House MO SW Colo. 1919 34 (14) Unexcavated ruins of a prehistoric Native American village.
National and International Historic Sites and Historical Parks
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace HS Central Ky. 1916 117 (47) Traditional birthplace cabin in memorial building on site of Lincoln's birthplace.
Adams HP E Mass. 1946 14 (6) Home of Presidents John Adams, John Quincy Adams, and other members of the family.
Allegheny Portage Railroad HS SW Pa. 1964 1,249 (506) Inclined-plane railroad that lifted passengers and cargoes of boats on the Pennsylvania Canal over the Allegheny Mts.
Andersonville HS SW Ga. 1970 495 (200) Civil War prison camp and national prisoner of war memorial. See under Andersonville.
Andrew Johnson HS NE Tenn. 1935 17 (7) Home, shop, and grave of President Andrew Johnson; site includes Andrew Johnson National Cemetery.
Appomattox Court House HP S central Va. 1930 1,775 (719) Site of Lee's surrender to Grant. See under Appomattox, Va.
Bent's Old Fort HS SE Colo. 1960 799 (323) Fur-trading post and rest station on the Santa Fe Trail; built c.1830 by Charles Bent and William Bent. See Bent's Fort.
Boston HP E Mass. 1974 41 (17) Many sites include Old South Meeting House, the home of Paul Revere, obelisk commemorating the Battle of Bunker Hill, and part of the Charlestown Navy Yard.
Boston African American HS E Mass. 1980 .38 (.15) Site features oldest African-American church in the United States and the Black Heritage Trail.
Brown v. Board of Education HS NE Kansas 1992 2 (.8) See Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans.
Cane River Creole HP SE La. 1994 207 (84) Plantations and other sites associated with the development of creole culture.
Carl Sandburg Home HS SW N.C. 1968 264 (107) Farm home of author Carl Sandburg.
Chaco Culture HP NW N.Mex. 1907 33,974 (13,759) 13 pre-Columbian ruins of the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. Ruins representing the highest point of Pueblo prehistoric civilization (AD 850–1100).
Charles Pinckney HS SE S.C. 1988 28 (11) Home and estate of American diplomat and framer of the Constitution.
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal HP D.C., Md., W.Va. 1938 19,236 (7,791) See Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Proclaimed a national monument in 1961, a national historical park in 1971.
Christiansted HS Virgin Islands, on St. Croix 1952 27 (11) Commemorates the Virgin Islands' colonial development, especially under Danish rule in the 18th and 19th cent.
Clara Barton HS S Md. 1974 9 (4) Home and offices of the founder of the American Red Cross.
Colonial HP SE Va. 1930 9,350 (3,785) Historic Yorktown, Jamestown, and Cape Henry. Colonial Parkway connects some sites with Williamsburg.
Cumberland Gap HP Ky., Tenn., Va. 1940 20,454 (8,281) Mountain pass of the Wilderness Road. See Cumberland Gap.
Dayton Aviation Heritage HP W Ohio 1992 86 (35) Site honors life and work of the Wright brothers, as well as poet Paul Laurence Dunbar.
Edgar Allan Poe HS SE Pa. 1978 .52 (.21) In 1843, Poe lived here and wrote several of his most famous stories.
Edison HS NE N.J. 1962 21 (9) Buildings and equipment used by Thomas A. Edison.
Eisenhower HS S Pa. 1969 690 (279) Home and farm of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Eleanor Roosevelt HS S N.Y. 1977 181 (73) Her personal retreat including two restored buildings, tennis court, rose garden, and playhouse.
Eugene O'Neill HS N Calif. 1976 13 (5) Restored home of the playwright.
Ford's Theatre HS Washington, D.C. 1970 .29 (.12) Site of President Abraham Lincoln's assassination and death; includes the Lincoln Museum.
Fort Bowie HS SE Ariz. 1964 1,000 (405) Ruins of a fort (est. 1862) that was the base of military operations against Geronimo and his followers.
Fort Davis HS W Tex. 1961 474 (192) Key post in the defensive system of W Texas, guarding (1854–91) the San Antonio–El Paso road through the Davis Mts.
Fort Laramie HS SE Wyo. 1938 833 (337) Buildings of an old fort on the Oregon Trail.
Fort Larned HS Central Kansas 1964 718 (291) Protected the Santa Fe Trail; served as a military base during the Plains War (1860s) and later as an Indian Bureau administrative center.
Fort Point HS W Calif. 1970 29 (12) Brick and granite mid-19th-century coastal fortification.
Fort Raleigh HS NE N.C. 1941 513 (208) Site of the first attempted settlement by the English in North America. See Roanoke Island.
Fort Scott HS SE Kansas 1965 17 (7) Commemorates historic events in Kansas prior to and during the Civil War.
Fort Smith HS NW Ark. 1961 75 (30) One of the first U.S. military posts in the Louisiana Purchase; maintained law and order in the Oklahoma Territory. See Fort Smith, Ark.
Fort Union Trading Post HS N.Dak., Mont. 1966 442 (179) American Fur Company trading post during the 19th cent.
Fort Vancouver HS SW Wash. 1948 209 (85) Site of a Hudson's Bay Company post (1825–49) and later of a U.S. army fort.
Frederick Douglass HS Washington, D.C. 1962 9 (4) Home of the abolitionist and writer; contains original furnishings, photographs, lithographs, and his library.
Frederick Law Olmsted HS E Mass. 1979 7 (2.8) Site of Olmsted's home and business containing lithographs and original furnishings.
Friendship Hill HS SW Pa. 1978 675 (273) Home of Albert Gallatin, U.S. secretary of the treasury under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.
George Rogers Clark HP SW Ind. 1966 26 (11) Memorial near the site of old Fort Sackville, seized from the British by General G. R. Clark in 1779.
Golden Spike HS N Utah 1957 2,735 (1,108) Site where the Union Pacific RR and the Central Pacific RR joined to form the first transcontinental railroad.
Grant-Kohrs Ranch HS W Mont. 1972 1,618 (655) Headquarters of one of the largest 19th-century range ranches.
Hampton HS NE Md. 1948 62 (25) Late-18th-century Georgian mansion.
Harpers Ferry HP Md., W.Va. 1944 2,343 (949) See Harpers Ferry.
Harry S. Truman HS Mo. 1983 7 (3) Home of Harry S. Truman from 1919 until 1972.
Herbert Hoover HS E Iowa 1965 187 (76) Birthplace, childhood home, and burial place of President Herbert Hoover.
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt HS SE N.Y. 1944 349 (141) Home, "Summer White House," and burial place of Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt. See Hyde Park.
Hopewell Culture HP S Ohio 1923 1,245 (504) Prehistoric burial mounds of Hopewell people.
Hopewell Furnace HS SE Pa. 1938 848 (343) 19th-century iron-making site with reconstructed buildings and furnished cottages.
Hubbell Trading Post HS NE Ariz. 1965 160 (65) Example of a late-19th-century trading post in the Southwest.
Independence HP SE Pa. 1948 45 (18) Historic points of interest and the Liberty Bell; site of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. See Independence Hall.
James A. Garfield HS NE Ohio 1980 8 (3) Home of the 20th president and site of the first presidential memorial library.
Jean Lafitte HP SE La. 1939 20,020 (8,108) Includes New Orleans' French Quarter, the Chalmette Battlefield, and the Barataria and Acadian units.
Jimmy Carter HS SW Georgia 1987 71 (29) Buildings and exhibits associated with the 39th president's life.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy HS E Mass. 1967 .09 (.04) Birthplace and early boyhood home of President John F. Kennedy.
John Muir HS W Calif. 1964 345 (140) John Muir House and Martínez Adobe, commemorating contributions of John Muir to conservation and literature.
Kalaupapa HP N Molokai Island, Hawaii 1980 10,779 (4,365) Site of former leper colony separated from the island by 2,000-ft (610-m) cliff; there are ruins of 300 Hawaiian structures.
Kaloko-Honokohau HP Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1978 1,161 (470) Site of important pre-European settlements.
Keweenaw HP NW Mich. 1992 1,870 (757) Preserves features relevant to the first significant copper mining in the United States.
Klondike Gold Rush HP SW Alaska, NW Wa. 1976 13,191 (5,342) Sites connected with the 1898 Klondike gold rush including Seattle's Pioneer Square, the miners' point of departure.
Knife River Indian Villages HS Central N.Dak. 1974 1,758 (712) Ruins of villages of Hidasta and Mandan Native Americans.
Lewis and Clark HP NW Oreg., SW Wash. 1958 1,481 (599) Fort Clatsop, site of the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and other sites associated with it. Jointly managed with nearby state historical parks.
Lincoln Home HS Central Ill. 1971 12 (5) Only private home owned by Abraham Lincoln; he was living there when he was elected president.
Little Rock Central High School HS Central Ark. 1998 18 (7) Site commemorating the "Little Rock Nine" and the fight for desegregation in the schools.
Longfellow HS E Mass. 1972 2 (.8) Home of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1837–82) in Cambridge; also George Washington's headquarters during the siege of Boston (1775–76).
Lowell HP NE Mass. 1978 141 (57) Restored site of cotton mill traces the history of the Industrial Revolution.
Lyndon B. Johnson HP SE Tex. 1969 1,570 (636) Sites of the birthplace, boyhood home, and ranch of President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Maggie L. Walker HS E Central Va. 1978 1 (.4) Home of African-American bank president and early leader in the women's movement.
Manzanar HS E Calif. 1992 814 (330) Site of World War II internment of Japanese Americans. See relocation center.
Marsh-Billings HP Vt. 1992 643 (260) Home of pioneer conservationist George Perkins Marsh.
Martin Luther King, Jr. HS N Ga. 1980 39 (16) Birthplace, church, and grave of the civil-rights leader.
Martin Van Buren HS SE N.Y. 1974 40 (16) Home of the 8th president.
Mary McLeod Bethune Council House HS Washington, D.C. 1982 .07 (.03) Home and political headquarters of the educator and activist; the carriage house contains the Bethune Archives.
Minute Man HP E Mass. 1959 965 (391) Scene of fighting on the opening day of the Revolutionary War; includes North Bridge, Minute Man statue, Battle Road (see Lexington and Concord, battles of), and the home of Nathaniel Hawthorne.
Morristown HP N N.J. 1933 1,698 (687) Site of military encampments during the Revolution; Washington's headquarters, 1779–80.
Natchez HP SW Miss. 1988 108 (44) Melrose plantation and other antebellum buildings.
New Bedford Whaling HP SE Mass. 1996 34 (14) Commemorates the whaling heritage of New Bedford; includes a whaling museum.
New Orleans Jazz HP SE La. 1994 Preserves and interprets jazz as it has evolved in New Orleans.
Nez Percé HP Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash. 1965 2,123 (860) 38 sites that preserve and commemorate the history and culture of the Nez Percé.
Nicodemus HS NW Kansas 1996 161 (65) Site of town established by African Americans during Reconstruction.
Ninety Six HS NW S.C. 1976 989 (401) A frontier trading post and Revolutionary War stronghold.
Palo Alto Battlefield HS S Tex. 1978 3,357 (1,360) Site of the first major battle of the Mexican War.
Pecos HP N N.Mex. 1965 6,671 (2,702) 15th-century ruins of Pecos Pueblo, once the largest Native American settlement in the Southwest.
Pennsylvania Avenue HS Washington, D.C. 1965 Portion of Pennsylvania Ave. and adjacent area between the Capitol and the White House.
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau HP SW Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1955 182 (74) Ancient Hawaiian sanctuary and royal residence.
Puukohola Heiau HS Hawaii Island, Hawaii 1972 86 (35) Ruins of temple built (1791) by King Kamehameha the Great.
Sagamore Hill HS SE N.Y. 1962 83 (34) Estate and Victorian-style home of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Saint Croix Island IS E Maine 1949 45 (18) Commemorates the French settlement on the island in the Saint Croix River.
Saint-Gaudens HS W N.H. 1964 148 (60) Memorial to the American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens; contains his home studios, gardens.
Saint Paul's Church HS SE N.Y. 1943 6 (2) 18th-century church associated with the events leading to the arrest of John Peter Zenger; includes Bill of Rights museum.
Salem Maritime HS NE Mass. 1938 9 (4) Wharves and buildings important during Salem's seafaring days.
Salt River Bay HP Virgin Islands, on St. Croix 1992 945 (383) Fort Sale; upland watersheds, mangrove forests, estuarine and marine environments.
San Antonio Missions HP S central Tex. 1978 819 (332) Four missions situated on the San Antonio River; important examples of Spanish cultural influence.
San Francisco Maritime HP N Calif. 1988 50 (20) Largest collection of historic ships in the United States; exhibits on maritime history.
San Juan HS NE Puerto Rico 1949 75 (30) Oldest fortification within the limits of U.S. territory, built (16th cent.) by the Spanish to protect the harbor guarding the sea lanes to the New World.
San Juan Island HP NW Wash. 1966 1,752 (710) Dedicated to the peaceful relationship between the United States, Britain, and Canada since the San Juan Boundary Dispute.
Saratoga HP E N.Y. 1938 3,392 (1,373) Scene of a famous battle in the American Revolution. See Saratoga campaign.
Saugus Iron Works HS E Mass. 1968 9 (4) Reconstruction of the 17th-century Colonial ironworks.
Sitka HP SE Alaska 1910 107 (43) Site of the Tlingit peoples' defeat by Russian settlers in 1804. See Sitka.
Springfield Armory HS Mass. 1974 55 (22) Large weapons museum housed in former arsenal.
Steamtown HS NE Pa. 1986 62 (25) A railyard containing America's largest collection of steam-era locomotives and railroad cars.
Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace HS SE N.Y. 1962 .11 (.04) Birthplace and boyhood home of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural HS W N.Y. 1966 1 (.4) Ansley Wilcox House, where Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office (1901) as president.
Thomas Stone HS S Md. 1978 328 (133) Georgian-style home, Habre-de-Ventre, of a signatory of the Declaration of Independence.
Tumacacori HP S Ariz. 1908 46 (19) Mission founded by Father Eusebio F. Kino; rebuilt by the Franciscans.
Tuskegee Airmen HS SE Ala. 1999 90 (36) Site commemorating the African-American Tuskegee Airmen of World War II.
Tuskegee Institute HS S Ala. 1974 58 (23) First institution of higher learning for the vocational training of African Americans; founded in 1881.
Ulysses S. Grant HS Missouri 1989 10 (4) Pre–Civil War home of Ulysses S. Grant.
Valley Forge HP SE Pa. 1976 3,466 (1,404) Soldiers' huts and preserved buildings re-create the 1777–78 encampment of the Continental Army.
Vanderbilt Mansion HS E N.Y. 1940 212 (86) 19th-century palatial Victorian residence of a grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt.
War in the Pacific HP Central Guam 1978 2,031 (822) Artifacts of World War II in the Pacific theater.
Washita Battlefield HS Okla. 1848 315 (128) Site of a Southern Cheyenne village attacked by General Custer on Nov. 27, 1868.
Weir Farm HS Conn. 1990 74 (30) Home and studio of the American impressionist painter J. Alden Weir.
Whitman Mission HS SW Wash. 1936 98 (40) Site of the mission of Dr. Marcus Whitman.
William Howard Taft HS SW Ohio 1969 3 (1) Birthplace and early home of President William Howard Taft.
Women's Rights HP W N.Y. 1980 6 (2) Includes Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, site of first women's rights convention (1848), and the home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
National Memorials
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Arkansas Post MM SE Ark. 1960 747 (302) Site of the first permanent French settlement in the lower Mississippi valley. See Arkansas Post.
Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial MM NE Va. 1925 28 (11) Former home of the Custis and Lee families; memorial to Robert E. Lee.
Chamizal MM W Tex. 1966 55 (22) Memorializes the peaceful settlement of the 99-year border dispute between the United States and Mexico.
Coronado MM SE Ariz. 1952 4,750 (1,924) Area near Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's point of entry (1540) into the United States.
De Soto MM W Fla. 1948 27 (11) Commemorates the landing (1539) of Hernando De Soto in Florida and his exploration of the S United States.
Federal Hall MM SE N.Y. 1939 .45 (.18) Site of the first seat of the federal government and George Washington's inauguration (1789).
Fort Caroline MM NE Fla. 1950 138 (56) Area overlooking the site of Fort Caroline.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1997 8 (3) Monument to Roosevelt on the Mall in the nation's capital.
General Grant MM SE N.Y. 1958 .76 (.31) Tomb of President Ulysses S. Grant and his wife, Julia.
Hamilton Grange MM SE N.Y. 1962 .11 (.04) Home of Alexander Hamilton.
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial MM E Mo. 1935 193 (78) Area commemorating westward exploration and settlement; includes Gateway Arch. See Saint Louis, Mo.
Johnstown Flood MM SE Pa. 1964 164 (66) Memorializes the Johnstown flood of 1889. See Johnstown, Pa.
Korean War Veterans Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1986 2 (.8) Grouping of 19 infantry soldiers standing before a polished granite wall.
Lincoln Boyhood MM SW Ind. 1962 200 (81) Site of the farm where Abraham Lincoln was raised and the burial place of his mother, Mary Hanks Lincoln.
Lincoln Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1911 107 (45) See Lincoln Memorial.
Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac MM NE Va. 1973 17 (7) Grove of 500 white pines overlooking Potomac River vista of the capital.
Mount Rushmore MM SW S.Dak. 1925 1,278 (518) Carvings of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt on the granite face of Mt. Rushmore.
Oklahoma City MM Okla. 1997 6 (2) Site honoring the rescuers and victims killed in the Apr. 19, 1995, bombing of the Federal Building.
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial MM N Ohio 1936 25 (10) Scene of the victory near Put-in Bay of Oliver H. Perry in the War of 1812.
Roger Williams MM E R.I. 1965 5 (2) Memorial to Roger Williams, the founder of the Rhode Island colony and a pioneer of religious freedom.
Thaddeus Kosciuszko MM SE Pa. 1972 .02 (.01) Commemorates the life and work of Thaddeus Kosciusko.
Thomas Jefferson MM Washington, D.C. 1934 18 (7) See Thomas Jefferson Memorial.
USS Arizona Memorial MM S Honolulu, Hawaii 1980 A memorial to American losses at Pearl Harbor.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial MM Washington, D.C. 1980 2 (.8) See Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
Washington Monument MM Washington, D.C. 1848 106 (43) 555-ft (169-m) high obelisk honoring Washington.
Wright Brothers MM NE N.C. 1927 428 (173) Scene of the first (1903) successful flight of the Wright brothers.
National Battlefields, Battlefield Parks, Battlefield Sites, and Military Parks
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Antietam BF Central Md. 1890 3,223 (1,305) See Antietam campaign. Antietam (Sharpsburg) National Cemetery adjoins the park.
Big Hole BF SW Mont. 1910 656 (266) Scene of 1877 battle between U.S. troops and Nez Percé led by Chief Joseph.
Brices Cross Roads BS NE Miss. 1929 1 (.4) Site of a rout of Union troops by Confederate cavalry under General N. B. Forrest (June 10, 1864).
Chickamauga and Chattanooga MP Ga., Tenn. 1890 8,129 (3,291) Civil War battle sites; first national military park.
Cowpens BF NW S.C. 1929 932 (377) Site of an American militia victory over British infantry and cavalry forces in the Revolutionary War battle of Cowpens (Jan. 17, 1781).
Fort Donelson BF NW Tenn. 1928 552 (224) Site of first Union Army victory; Civil War cemetery.
Fort Necessity BF SW Pa. 1931 903 (366) George Washington's troops defeated here in 1754.
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial MP NE Va. 1927 7,924 (3,208) Contains portions of four major Civil War battlefields (see Fredericksburg, battle of) and a national cemetery.
Gettysburg MP S Pa. 1895 5,984 (2,423) Civil War battlefield and cemetery; site of President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. See Gettysburg, Pa.
Guilford Courthouse MP N N.C. 1917 223 (90) See Guilford Courthouse, battle of.
Horseshoe Bend MP E Ala. 1956 2,040 (826) See Horseshoe Bend.
Kennesaw Mountain BP NW Ga. 1917 2,884 (1,168) Site of Sherman's attack on the Confederate forces in the Atlanta campaign.
Kings Mountain MP N S.C. 1931 3,945 (1,598) Site of a crucial American victory (Oct. 7, 1780) over the British during the Revolution.
Manassas BP NE Va. 1940 5,072 (2,054) See Bull Run.
Monocacy BF W Md. 1976 1,647 (667) Site commemorates the first successful defense of Washington, D.C. during the Civil War.
Moores Creek BF SE N.C. 1926 88 (36) Site of a battle between Patriots and Loyalists.
Pea Ridge MP NW Ark. 1956 4,300 (1,742) Site of the Civil War battle of Pea Ridge, which saved Missouri for the Union.
Petersburg BF SE Va. 1926 2,659 (1,077) Scene of the Battle of the Crater and a 10-month Union campaign (1864–65) to seize Petersburg, Va.
Richmond BP E Va. 1936 1,718 (696) Commemorates Civil War battles of Cold Harbor, Drewry's Bluff, Gaines Mill, Malvern Hill, and Beaver Dam Creek.
Shiloh MP SW Tenn. 1894 3,973 (1,609) Site of the Civil War battle of Shiloh. Shiloh National Cemetery is there.
Stones River BF Central Tenn. 1927 713 (289) See Murfreesboro, Tenn. Site of Stones River National Cemetery.
Tupelo BF NE Miss. 1929 1 (.4) See Tupelo, Miss.
Vicksburg MP W Miss. 1899 1,740 (704) Site of the Vicksburg campaign of the Civil War and Vicksburg National Cemetery.
Wilson's Creek BF Missouri 1960 1,750 (709) Site of first major Civil War engagement west of the Mississippi.
National Preserves and Reserves
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Bering Land Bridge PS NW Alaska 1978 2,697,639 (1,092,162) Remnant of land bridge that connected Alaska with Asia.
Big Cypress PA S Fla. 1974 720,570 (291,729) Subtropical plant and animal life; ancestral home of Seminole and Miccosukee peoples.
Big Thicket PS SE Tex. 1974 97,191 (39,349) Large number of plant and animal species.
City of Rocks NR Idaho 1988 14,107 (5,711) Granite spires, sculptured rock formations.
Ebey's Landing NR Whidbey Island, Wash. 1978 19,000 (7,695) Records exploration and settlement of Puget Sound.
Little River Canyon PS NE Ala. 1992 13,633 (5,519) Rock expanses, benches, and bluffs; kayaking and rock climbing.
Mojave PS S Calif. 1994 1,508,045 (610,545) Dunes, cinder cones, historic mining scenes; protects fragile habitat of the desert tortoise.
Noatak PS Alaska 1978 6,569,904 (2,660,811) Mountain-ringed river basin.
Tallgrass Prairie PS E Kansas 1996 10,894 (4,411) Preserve protecting surviving remnant of the tallgrass ecosystem.
Timucan Ecological and Historic Preserve PS Fla. 1988 46,019 (18,631) Atlantic coastal marshes, islands, tidal creeks.
Yukon-Charley Rivers PS E central Alaska 1978 2,526,512 (1,022,879) Peregrine falcons, 1898 Gold Rush relics.
National Recreation Areas
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Amistad RA S Tex. 1965 58,500 (23,693) U.S. part of Amistad Reservoir, on the Rio Grande.
Bighorn Canyon RA Mont., Wyo. 1966 120,296 (48,720) Yellowtail Dam and spectacular Bighorn Canyon, on the Bighorn River.
Boston Harbor Islands RA E Mass. 1996 1,482 (600) More than 30 islands off the Greater Boston coast.
Chattahoochie River RA Georgia 1978 9,260 (3,750) Series of historic and recreational sites along the Chattahoochie River.
Chickasaw RA S Okla. 1976 9,889 (4,005) Mineral springs, streams, and lakes. Name honors Chickasaw Nation; combination of former Platt National Park and Arbuckle National Recreation Area.
Curecanti RA E Colo. 1965 41,972 (16,993) Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal reservoirs in the upper Black Canyon of the Gunnison.
Delaware Water Gap RA N.J., Pa. 1965 66,756 (27,027) Scenic Delaware Water Gap.
Gateway RA N.Y., N.J. 1972 26,610 (10,773) Beaches, marshes, islands, and waters in and around New York City. One of the first two national urban recreation areas.
Gauley River RA W Va. 1988 11,342 (4,592) Passes through scenic valleys and gorges; whitewater boating.
Glen Canyon RA Ariz., Utah 1958 1,254,306 (507,816) Lake Powell, formed by the Glen Canyon Dam.
Golden Gate RA W Calif. 1972 73,688 (29,833) Beaches, forests, marshes, San Francisco's Presidio, and Alcatraz Island. One of the first two national urban recreation areas.
Lake Chelan RA N Wash. 1968 61,958 (25,084) Located in the Stehekin Valley and in the northern part of fjordlike Lake Chelan.
Lake Mead RA Ariz., Nev. 1936 1,495,666 (605,745) Lake Mead, formed by Hoover Dam, and Lake Mohave, formed by Davis Dam; the first national recreation area established by Congress.
Lake Meredith RA NW Tex. 1965 44,978 (18,216) Includes Lake Meredith, on the Canadian River, a popular water-sports area.
Lake Roosevelt RA NE Wash. 1946 100,390 (40,658) Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, formed by the Grand Coulee Dam in the Columbia River; interesting geology.
Ross Lake RA N Wash. 1968 117,575 (47,618) Extends along the Skagit River canyon; bisects North Cascades National Park.
Santa Monica Mountains RA SW Calif. 1978 153,824 (62,277) Rugged, chaparral-covered landscape fronting on sandy beaches.
Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity RA N Calif. 1965 42,503 (17,214) Reservoirs, forestland, and Whiskeytown Falls; the National Park Service runs the Whiskeytown unit, and the Forest Service administers the Shasta and Trinity units.
National Rivers
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Alagnak WS SW Alaska 1980 30,665 (12,415) White water and salmon fishing.
Big South Fork RR Ky., Tenn. 1976 125,242 (50,705) Scenic gorges and valleys.
Bluestone WS SW W.Va. 1988 4,310 (1,745) Fishing, hiking, boating, and scenery.
Buffalo RI NW Ark. 1972 94,292 (38,175) 136-mi (219-km) stretch of the Buffalo River and its valley; the first national river.
Delaware WS N.J.-Pa. 1978 1,973 (799) Swimming, boating, and fishing on Delaware River through the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.
Great Egg Harbor WS SW N.J. 1992 129 mi (208 km) long; largest canoeing river in the Pine Barrens.
Lower St. Croix WS E Minn., NW Wis. 1972 25,279 (10,234) First river segment added by Congress to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Program.
Mississippi River RR Minn. 1988 53,775 (21,779) Cultural, historical, and industrial features of the Mississippi River.
Missouri WS S.Dak. to Neb. 1978 Two free-flowing portions of Missouri River with islands, bars, and chutes; native floodplain forest.
New River Gorge RI W Va. 1978 69,834 (28,273) Rugged whitewater river flows through deep canyons.
Niobrara WS N Nebr. 1991 Ecological crossroads between eastern woodlands and western grasslands.
Obed WS E Tenn. 1976 5,173 (2,094) Numerous streams and rugged scenery.
Ozark WS Mo. 1964 80,786 (32,707) Scenic parts of the Current and Jacks Fork rivers; the first national scenic river.
Rio Grande WS S Tex. 1978 9,600 (3,888) 191-mi (307-km) strip of land on the U.S. shore of the Rio Grande in the Chihuahuan Desert.
Saint Croix WS Minn., Wis. 1968 67,483 (27,321) 200 mi (322 km) of the St. Croix River and its Namekagon tributary; trails, camping, boating.
Upper Delaware WS Pa., N.Y. 1978 75,005 (30,366) Fishing and boating.
National Lakeshores and Seashores
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Apostle Islands LS NW Wis. 1970 69,372 (28,096) Apostle Islands and a strip of the Bayfield Peninsula, on the south shore of Lake Superior.
Assateague Island SS Md., Va. 1965 39,723 (16,082) 37-mi (60-km) barrier island; beaches; wildlife refuge including wild ponies.
Canaveral SS E Fla. 1975 57,662 (23,353) Barrier island dunes and marshland that includes a wildlife refuge.
Cape Cod SS SE Mass. 1961 43,685 (17,686) See Cape Cod.
Cape Hatteras SS E N.C. 1937 30,321 (12,276) The first national seashore. See under Hatteras, Cape.
Cape Lookout SS E N.C. 1966 28,243 (11,438) Three barrier islands with beaches, sand dunes, and salt marshes; Cape Lookout Lighthouse.
Cumberland Island SS SE Ga. 1972 36,415 (14,748) Largest island off Georgia; beaches, sand dunes, marshes, and lakes.
Fire Island SS SE N.Y. 1964 19,579 (7,929) Covers section of Fire Island.
Gulf Islands SS Fla., Miss. 1971 137,458 (55,651) Historic forts and white sand beaches near Pensacola, Fla.; Fort Massachusetts and primitive offshore islands in S Miss.
Indiana Dunes LS NW Ind. 1966 15,138 (6,129) 200-ft (60-m) sand dunes, beaches, and marshes along the south shore of Lake Michigan.
Padre Island SS S Tex. 1962 130,434 (52,826) See Padre Island, Tex.
Pictured Rocks LS N Mich. 1966 73,228 (29,657) Sandstone cliffs, marshes, dunes, and waterfalls along Lake Superior; the first national lakeshore.
Point Reyes SS W Calif. 1962 71,068 (28,772) Coastal area with beaches and steep bluffs.
Sleeping Bear Dunes LS W central Mich. 1970 71,196 (28,824) Section of the Lake Michigan shoreline and the North and South Manitoulin islands; beaches, sand dunes, forests.
Other Areas
Name Type Location Year authorized Sizeacres (hectares) Description
Appalachian ST Maine, N.H., Vt., Mass., Conn., N.Y., N.J., Pa., Md., W.Va., Va., Tenn., N.C., Ga. 1968 214,528 (86,853) See Appalachian Trail.
Blue Ridge PW Va., N.C. 1936 88,689 (35,906) Scenic route in the Blue Ridge Mts. between Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mts. national parks; many roadside parks, lookouts, and trails; the first national parkway.
California HT Missouri River to Calif. and Oreg. 1992 Former migration route extending 5,600 mi (9,010 km) from the Missouri River to California and Oregon.
Catoctin Mountain Park PO NW Md. 1936 5,770 (2,337) Campgrounds, trails, and scenic drive located in the Catoctin Mts.; Camp David, the presidential retreat, is there.
Constitution Gardens PO Washington, D.C. 1978 52 (21) Memorial to the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
Continental Divide ST Mont., Idaho, Wyo., Colo., N.Mex. 1978 3,200 (1,296) Runs the length of the Rocky Mountains.
Florida ST S Fla. 1983 Subtropical plant and animal life along 1,300-mi (2,092-km) trail.
Fort Washington Park PO Washington, D.C. 1930 341 (138) 19th-century fort.
George Washington Memorial Parkway PW Va., D.C., Md. 1930 7,248 (2,935) Parkway connecting landmarks associated with the life of George Washington along both sides of the Potomac River from Mt. Vernon to Great Falls.
Greenbelt PO N Md. 1950 1,176 (476) Woodland park.
Ice Age ST S Wis. 1980 100-mi (161-km) trail follows glacial moraines.
Iditarod HT Alaska 1978 Former Alaska Gold Rush trail extending 2,350 mi (3,781 km) from Seward to Nome.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. PW NW Wyo. 1972 23,777 (9,622) Scenic corridor between Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks commemorating Rockefeller's role in the creation of many national parks.
Juan Bautista de Anza HT W Calif. 1990 1,200-mi (1,931-km) trail traces the path of Spanish colonists.
Lewis and Clark HT Mo., Neb., S.Dak., N.Dak., Mont., Idaho, Oreg. 1978 3,700-mi (5,953-km) historic trail commemorates the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Mormon Pioneer HT Ill., Mo., Kans., Colo., Utah 1978 Historic trail follows the route taken by Brigham Young and his followers in 1847–48.
Natchez Trace ST Miss., Tenn. 1983 10,995 (4,453) Trail extends from Nashville, Tenn., to Natchez, Miss.
Natchez Trace PW Miss., Ala., Tenn. 1938 51,748 (20,958) Parkway following the general location of the old trail known as the Natchez Trace.
National Capital Parks PO D.C., Va., Md. 1790 6,544 (2,649) More than 300 parks, parkways, and military fortifications in and around Washington, D.C.
National Mall PO Washington, D.C. 1933 146 (59) Landscaped park, part of the L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C.
Nez Percé HT Oregon, Idaho, Mont., Wyo. 1986 1,170-mi (1,883-km) trail commemorates the retreat of the Nez Percé under Chief Joseph in 1877.
North Country ST N.Y. to N.Dak. 1980 Extends 3,200 mi (5,149 km), connecting seven northern tier states.
Oregon HT Mo. to Oreg. 1978 Traces the c.2,000-mi (3,200-km) route of pioneers in 1841–60.
Overmountain Victory HT Tenn., Va., N.C., S.C. 1980 Follows the 300-mi (483-km) path of revolutionary Patriots.
Pacific Crest ST Calif., Oreg., Wash. 1968 Follows the Sierra and Cascade peaks 2,638 mi (4,245 km) from Mexico to Canada; along with the Appalachian Trail one of the two initial components of the National Trails System.
Piscataway Park PO S Md. 1961 4,486 (1,816) Preserves the view from Mt. Vernon of the opposite shore of the Potomac River.
Pony Express HT Mo., Kans., Colo., Utah, Nev., Calif. 1992 Follows the 1,966-mi (3,163-km) route of the pony express riders in 1860–61.
Potomac Heritage ST Va., D.C., Md., Pa. 1983 704-mi (1,133-km) trail connects the tidewater regions to the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.
Prince William Forest Park PO NE Va. 1936 18,572 (7,522) Pine and hardwood forests of the Quantico Creek watershed.
Rock Creek Park PO Washington, D.C. 1890 1,754 (710) Wooded preserve, one of the largest urban parks in the nation.
Santa Fe HT Mo., Kans., Okla., Col., N.Mex. 1987 Traces the 1,203-mi (1,936-km) route of famous Santa Fe Trail.
Theodore Roosevelt Island PO Washington, D.C., Va. 1932 89 (36) Wilderness preserve in the Potomac River; a tribute to the "conservationist president."
Trail of Tears HT N.C., Tenn., Ga., Ala., Ark., Okla. 1987 2,200-mi (3,540-km) trail commemorates the routes of forced migration of more than 15,000 Cherokee from their ancestral homes.
White House PO Washington, D.C. 1933 18 (7) See White House.
Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts PO N Va. 1966 130 (53) Set in a rolling, wooded landscaped area to provide artistic enjoyment and recreation; the first national park for the performing arts.

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