Nobel Prizes ( (table))

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

Nobel Prizes ( (table))

Nobel Prizes

Nobel Prizes
Year Peace Chemistry Physics Physiology or Medicine Literature
1901 J. H. Dunant Frédéric Passy J. H. van't Hoff W. C. Roentgen E. A. von Behring R. F. A. Sully-Prudhomme
1902 Élie Ducommun C. A. Gobat Emil Fischer H. A. Lorentz Pieter Zeeman Sir Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen
1903 Sir William R. Cremer S. A. Arrhenius A. H. Becquerel Pierre Curie Marie S. Curie N. R. Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
1904 Institute of International Law Sir William Ramsay J. W. S. Rayleigh Ivan P. Pavlov Frédéric Mistral José Echegaray
1905 Baroness Bertha von Suttner Adolf von Baeyer Philipp Lenard Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz
1906 Theodore Roosevelt Henri Moissan Sir Joseph Thomson Camillo Golgi S. Ramón y Cajal Giosuè Carducci
1907 E. T. Moneta Louis Renault Eduard Buchner A. A. Michelson C. I. A. Laveran Rudyard Kipling
1908 K. P. Arnoldson Fredrik Bajer Sir Ernest Rutherford Gabriel Lippman Paul EhrlichÉlie Metchnikoff R. C. Eucken
1909 Auguste Beernaert P. H. B. Estournelles de Constant Wilhelm Ostwald Guglielmo Marconi K. F. Braun Emil T. Kocher Selma Lagerlöf
1910 International Peace Bureau Otto Wallach J. D. van der Waals Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse
1911 T. M. C. Asser A. H. Fried Marie S. Curie Wilhelm Wien Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck
1912 Elihu Root Victor Grignard Paul Sabatier N. G. Dalen Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann
1913 Henri La Fontaine Alfred Werner Heike Kamerlingh Onnes C. R. Richet Sir Rabindranath Tagore
1914 T. W. Richards Max von Laue Robert Barany
1915 Richard Willstätter Sir William H. Bragg Sir William L. Bragg Romain Rolland
1916 Verner von Heidenstam
1917 International Red Cross C. G. Barkla K. A. Gjellerup Henrik Pontoppidan
1918 Fritz Haber Max Planck
1919 Woodrow Wilson Johannes Stark Jules Bordet C. F. G. Spitteler
1920 Léon Bourgeois Walther Nernst C. É. Guillaume S. A. S. Krogh Knut Hamsum
1921 Hjalmar Branting C. L. Lange Frederick Soddy Albert Einstein Anatole France
1922 Fridtjof Nansen F. W. Aston N. H. D. Bohr A. V. Hill Otto Meyerhof Jacinto Benavente y Martinez
1923 Fritz Pregl Robert A. Millikan Sir Frederick G. Banting J. J. R. Macleod W. B. Yeats
1924 K. M. G. Siegbahn Willem Einthoven W. S. Reymont
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain Charles G. Dawes Richard Zsigmondy James Franck Gustav Hertz G. B. Shaw
1926 Aristide Briand Gustav Stresemann Theodor Svedberg J. B. Perrin Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda
1927 F. É. Buisson Ludwig Quidde Heinrich Wieland A. H. Compton C. T. R. Wilson Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson
1928 Adolf Windaus Sir Owen W. Richardson C. J. H. Nicolle Sigrid Undset
1929 Frank B. Kellogg Sir Arthur Harden Hans von Euler-Chelpin L. V. de Broglie Christian Eijkman Sir Frederick G. Hopkins Thomas Mann
1930 Nathan Söderblom Hans Fischer Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis
1931 Jane Addams Nicholas Murray Butler Carl Bosch Friedrich Bergius Otto H. Warburg E. A. Karlfeldt
1932 Irving Langmuir Werner Heisenberg E. D. Adrian Sir Charles Sherrington John Galsworthy
1933 Sir Norman Angell P. A. M. Dirac Erwin Schrödinger Thomas H. Morgan I. A. Bunin
1934 Arthur Henderson Harold C. Urey G. H. Whipple G. R. Minot W. P. Murphy Luigi Pirandello
1935 Carl von Ossietzky Frédéric Joliot-Curie Irène Joliot-Curie Sir James Chadwick Hans Spemann
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas P. J. W. Debye C. D. Anderson V. F. Hess Sir Henry H. Dale Otto Loewi Eugene O'Neill
1937 E. A. R. Cecil, Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Sir Walter N. Haworth Paul Karrer C. J. Davisson Sir George P. Thomson Albert von Szent-Gyorgyi Roger Martin du Gard
1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees Richard Kuhn Enrico Fermi Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck
1939 Adolf Butenandt Leopold Ruzicka E. O. Lawrence Gerhard Domagk F. E. Sillanpää
1940
1941
1942
1943 Georg von Hevesy Otto Stern E. A. Doisy Henrik Dam
1944 International Red Cross Otto Hahn I. I. Rabi Joseph Erlanger H. S. Gasser J. V. Jensen
1945 Cordell Hull A. I. Virtanen Wolfgang Pauli Sir Alexander Fleming E. B. Chain Sir Howard W. Florey Gabriela Mistral
1946 J. R. Mott Emily G. Balch J. B. Sumner J. H. Northrop W. M. Stanley P. W. Bridgman H. J. Muller Hermann Hesse
1947 American Friends Service Committee and Friends Service Council Sir Robert Robinson Sir Edward V. Appleton C. F. Cori Gerty T. Cori B. A. Houssay André Gide
1948 Arne Tiselius P. M. S. Blackett Paul H. Müller T. S. Eliot
1949 John Boyd Orr, Baron Boyd Orr W. F. Giauque Hideki Yukawa W. R. Hess Egas Moniz William Faulkner
1950 Ralph J. Bunche Otto Diels Kurt Alder C. F. Powell Philip S. Hench Edward C. Kendall Tadeus Reichstein Bertrand Russel, Earl Russell
1951 Léon Jouhaux Edwin M. McMillan Glenn T. Seaborg Sir John D. Cockcroft Ernest T. S. Walton Max Theiler Pär F. Lagerkvist
1952 Albert Schweitzer A. J. P. Martin R. L. M. Synge Felix Bloch E. M. Purcell S. A. Waksman François Mauriac
1953 George C. Marshall Hermann Staudinger Frits Zernike F. A. Lipmann Sir Hans A. Krebs Sir Winston L. S. Churchill
1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Linus C. Pauling Max Born Walther Bothe J. F. Enders F. C. Robbins T. H. Weller Ernest Hemingway
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud Willis E. Lamb, Jr. Polykarp Kusch A. H. T. Theorell Halldór K. Laxness
1956 Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood Nikolai N. Semenov W. B. Shockley W. H. Brattain John Bardeen D. W. Richards, Jr. A. F. Cournand Werner Forssmann Juan Ramón Jiménez
1957 Lester B. Pearson Sir Alexander R. Todd Tsung-Dao Lee Chen Ning Yang Daniele Bovet Albert Camus
1958 Georges Henri Pire Frederick Sanger P. A. Cherenkov Igor Y. Tamm Ilya M. Frank Joshua Lederberg G. W. Beadle E. I. Tatum Boris L. Pasternak
1959 Philip J. Noel-Baker Jaroslav Heyrovsky Emilio Segrè Owen Chamberlain Severo Ochoa Arthur Kornberg Salvatore Quasimodo
1960 Albert J. Luthuli W. F. Libby D. A. Glaser Sir Macfarlane Burnet P. B. Medawar St.-John Perse
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld Melvin Calvin Robert Hofstadter R. L. Moessbauer Georg von Bekesy Ivo Andrić
1962 Linus C. Pauling M. F. Perutz J. C. Kendrew L. D. Landau J. D. Watson F. H. C. Crick M. H. F. Wilkins John Steinbeck
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross League of Red Cross Societies Giulio Natta Karl Ziegler Eugene Paul Wigner Maria Goeppert Mayer J. Hans D. Jensen Sir John Carew Eccles Alan Lloyd Hodgkin Andrew Fielding Huxley George Seferis
1964 Martin Luther King, Jr. Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin Charles Hard Townes Nikolai Gennadiyevich Basov Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov Konrad E. Bloch Feodor Lynen Jean-Paul Sartre
1965 United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund Robert Burns Woodward Richard Phillips Feynman Shinichiro Tomonaga Julian Seymour Schwinger François Jacob André Lwoff Jacques Monod M. A. Sholokhov
1966 Robert S. Mulliken Alfred Kastler Francis Peyton Rous Charles Brenton Huggins S. Y. Agnon Nelly Sachs
1967 Manfred Eigen Ronald George Wreyford Norrish George Porter Hans Albrecht Bethe Ragnar Granit Haldan Keffer Hartline George Wald Miguel Angel Asturias
1968 René Cassin Lars Onsager Luis W. Alvarez Robert W. Holley H. Gobind Khorana Marshall W. Nirenberg Yasunari Kawabata
1969 International Labor Organization Derek H. R. Barton Odd Hassel Murray Gell-Mann Max Delbrück Alfred D. Hershey Salvador B. Luria Samuel Beckett
1970 Norman E. Borlaug Luis Federico Leloir Louis Eugène Néel Hans Olof Alfven Julius Axelrod Bernard Katz Ulf von Euler Alexandr I. Solzhenitsyn
1971 Willy Brandt Gerhard Herzberg Dennis Gabor Earl W. Sutherland Pablo Neruda
1972 Stanford Moore William Howard Stein Christian B. Anfinsen John Bardeen Leon N. Cooper John Robert Schrieffer Gerald M. Edelman Rodney R. Porter Heinrich Böll
1973 Henry A. Kissinger Le Duc Tho Ernst Otto Fischer Geoffrey Wilkinson Leo Esaki Ivar Giaever Brian D. Josephson Konrad Lorenz Nikolaas Tinbergen Karl von Frisch Patrick White
1974 Sean MacBride Eisaku Sato Paul J. Flory Martin Ryle Antony Hewish Albert Claude George Emil Palade Christian de Duve Eyvind Johnson Harry Martinson
1975 Andrei D. Sakharov John Warcup Cornforth Vladimir Prelog Aage N. Bohr Ben Roy Mottelson James Rainwater David Baltimore Renato Dulbecco Howard M. Temin Eugenio Montale
1976 Mairead Corrigan Betty Williams WIlliam Nunn Lipscomb Burton Richter Samuel Chao Chung Ting Baruch Samuel Blumberg Daniel Carleton Gajdusek Saul Bellow
1977 Amnesty International Ilya Prigogine Philip W. Anderson Sir Nevill F. Mott John H. Van Vleck Rosalyn S. Yalow Roger C. L. Guillemin Andrew V. Schally Vicente Aleixandre
1978 Menachem Begin Anwar al-Sadat Peter Mitchell Peter Kapitza Arno A. Penzias Robert W. Wilson Werner Arber Daniel Nathans Hamilton O. Smith Isaac Bashevis Singer
1979 Mother Teresa Herbert C. Brown Georg Wittig Steven Weinberg Sheldon L. Glashow Abdus Salam Allan Macleod Cormack Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield Odysseus Elytis
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Paul Berg Walter Gilbert Frederick Sanger James W. Cronin Val L. Fitch Baruj Benacerraf George D. Snell Jean Dausset Czesław Miłosz
1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Kenichi Fukui Roald Hoffmann Nicolaas Bloembergen Arthur Schawlow Kai M. Siegbahn Roger W. Sperry David H. Hubel Torsten N. Wiesel Elias Canetti
1982 Alfonso García Robles Alva Myrdal Aaron Klug Kenneth G. Wilson Sune K. Bergström Bengt I. Samuelsson John R. Vane Gabriel García Márquez
1983 Lech Wałęsa Henry Taube Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar William A. Fowler Barbara McClintock William Golding
1984 Desmond Tutu R. Bruce Merrifield Carlo Rubbia Simon van der Meer Cesar Milstein George J. F. Köhler Niels K. Jerne Jaroslav Seifert
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Herbert A. Hauptman Jerome Karle Klaus von Klitzing Michael S. Brown Joseph L. Goldstein Claude Simon
1986 Elie Wiesel Dudley R. Herschbach Yuan T. Lee John C. Polanyi Ernst Ruska Gerd Binnig Heinrich Rohrer Rita Levi-Montalcini Stanley Cohen Wole Soyinka
1987 Oscar Arias Sánchez Donald J. Cram Charles J. Pedersen Jean-Marie Lehn K. Alex Müller J. Georg Bednorz Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky
1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces Johann Deisenhofer Robert Huber Hartmut Michel Leon M. Lederman Melvin Schwartz Jack Steinberger Gertrude B. Elion George H. Hitchings Sir James Black Naguib Mahfouz
1989 Dalai Lama Thomas R. Cech Sidney Altman Norman F. Ramsey Hans G. Dehmelt Wolfgang Paul J. Michael Bishop Harold E. Varmus Camilo José Cela
1990 Mikhail S. Gorbachev Elias James Corey Richard E. Taylor Jerome I. Friedman Henry W. Kendall Joseph E. Murray E. Donnall Thomas Octavio Paz
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi Richard R. Ernst Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Edwin Neher Bert Sakmann Nadine Gordimer
1992 Rigoberta Menchú Rudolph A. Marcus Georges Charpak Edmond H. Fischer Edwin G. Krebs Derek Walcott
1993 F. W. de Klerk Nelson Mandela Kary B. Mullis Michael Smith Russell A. Hulse Joseph H. Taylor, Jr. Richard J. Roberts Phillip A. Sharp Toni Morrison
1994 Yasir Arafat Shimon Peres Yitzhak Rabin George A. Olah Clifford G. Shull Bertram N. Brockhouse Alfred G. Gilman Martin Rodbell Kenzaburo Oe
1995 Joseph Rotblat Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Paul Crutzen F. Sherwood Rowland Mario Molina Martin L. Perl Frederick Reines Edward B. Lewis Eric F. Wieschaus Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Seamus Heaney
1996 Carlos Belo José Ramos-Horta Richard E. Smalley Robert F. Curl, Jr. Sir Harold W. Kroto David M. Lee Robert C. Richardson Douglas D. Osheroff Peter C. Doherty Rolf M. Zinkernagel Wisława Szymborska
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines Jody Williams Paul D. Boyer Jens C. Skou John E. Walker Steven Chu William D. Phillips Claude Cohen-Tannoudji Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo
1998 John Hume David Trimble Walter Kohn John A. Pople Robert B. Laughlin Horst L. Störmer Daniel C. Tsui Robert F. Furchgott Louis J. Ignarro Ferid Murad José Saramago
1999 Doctors Without Borders Ahmed H. Zewail Martinus J. G. Veltman Gerardus 't Hooft Günter Blobel Günter Grass
2000 Kim Dae Jung Alan J. Heeger Alan G. MacDiarmid Hideki Shirakawa Zhores I. Alferov Herbert Kroemer Jack S. Kilby Arvid Carlsson Paul Greengard Eric Kandel Gao Xingjian
2001 United Nations Kofi Annan William S. Knowles Ryoji Noyori K. Barry Sharpless Eric A. Cornell Wolfgang Ketterle Carl E. Wieman Leland H. Hartwell R. Timothy Hunt Sir Paul M. Nurse V. S. Naipaul
2002 Jimmy Carter John B. Fenn Koichi Tanaka Kurt Wüthrich Raymond Davis, Jr. Masatoshi Koshiba Riccardo Giacconi Sydney Brenner H. Robert Horvitz John E. Sulston Imre Kertész
2003 Shirin Ebadi Peter C. Agre Roderick MacKinnon Alexei A. Abrikosov Vitaly L. Ginzburg Anthony J. Leggett Paul C. Lauterbur Sir Peter Mansfield J. M. Coetzee
2004 Wangari Maathai Aaron Ciechanover Avram Hershko Irwin Rose David J. Gross H. David Politzer Frank Wilczek Richard Axel Linda B. Buck Elfriede Jelinek
2005 International Atomic Energy Agency Mohamed ElBaradei Yves Chauvin Robert H. Grubbs Richard R. Schrock Roy J. Glauber John L. Hall Theodor W. Hänsch Barry J. Marshall J. Robin Warren Harold Pinter
2006 Muhammad Yunus Grameen Bank Roger Kornberg John C. Mather George F. Smoot Andrew Z. Fire Craig C. Mello Orhan Pamuk
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. Gerhard Ertl Albert Fert Peter Grünberg Mario R. Capecchi Sir Martin J. Evans Oliver Smithies Doris Lessing
2008 Martti Ahtisaari Osamu Shimomura Martin Chalfie Roger Y. Tsien Yoichiro Nambu Makoto Kobayashi Toshihide Maskawa Harald zur Hausen Françoise Barré-Sinoussi Luc Montagnier Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
2009 Barack Obama Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Thomas A. Steltz Ada E. Yonath Charles K. Kao Willard S. Boyle George E. Smith Elizabeth H. Blackburn Carol W. Greider Jack W. Szostak Herta Müller
2010 Liu Xiaobo Richard F. Heck Ei-ichi Negishi Akira Suzuki Andre Geim Konstantin Novoselov Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa
2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Leymah Gbowee Tawakul Karman Dan Shechtman Saul Perlmutter Brian P. Schmidt Adam G. Riess Bruce A. Beutler James A. Hoffmann Ralph M. Steinman Tomas Tranströmer
2012 European Union Robert J. Lefkowitz Brian K. Kobilka Serge Haroche David J. Wineland Sir John B. Gurdon Shinya Yamanaka Mo Yan
2013 Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Martin Karplus Michael Levitt Arieh Warshel François Englert Peter W. Higgs James E. Rothman Randy W. Schekman Thomas C. Südhof Alice Munro

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