Sheffield (city, England)
Sheffield, city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 470,685), N England, at the confluence of the Don River and four tributaries. Sheffield was one of the leading industrial cities of England. It has been a center of cutlery manufacture since the 14th cent. The Cutlers' Company, the governing body of cutlery manufacturers, was founded in the city in 1624. Silver and electroplate goods, tools, and heavy steel goods, including plates for artillery and rails, are also made. The first Bessemer-process steelworks were built in Sheffield in 1859; the industry is now all but finished. In the city's Weston Park are an observatory, City Museum, and the Mappin Art Gallery. Also of note is Graves Art Gallery. Educational institutions include the Univ. of Sheffield (1905) and Sheffield Polytechnic.