Song Shan (sŭng´ shän´), mountain, N central Henan prov., China; one of the five sacred mountains of China. It is famous for the Shaolin Temple, where generations of Buddhist monks have practiced martial arts. Bodhidharma, an Indian Buddhist master, is said to have arrived at the temple during the 6th cent. and established Zen Buddhism. The name is also transliterated as Sung Shan.