James Stuart, 1713–88, English architect, archaeologist, and painter. After working his way to Rome in 1742, Stuart accompanied Nicholas Revett on an archaeological expedition to Naples. Under the auspices of the Society of Dilettanti of London, they also went to Greece. In Athens (1751) they made accurate measurements of the ruins, particularly those of the Acropolis, and published their findings in The Antiquities of Athens, the first volume of which appeared in 1762. Its excellent illustrations depicted for the first time the great achievements of Greek architecture. Their work aroused wide attention and acted as a prime influence in the classic revival.