Thanjavur (tənjä´vōōr), formerly Tanjore (tănjôr´), city (1991 pop. 202,013), Tamil Nadu state, SE India. It is a district administrative headquarters and a rice-milling center on the Kaveri River delta, known as the "rice bowl" of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is also a center of craftsmanship noted especially for its silks and bronzeware and is a leading S Indian music and dance center. Among the city's many Hindu temples, the most famous is the Brahadeswara temple, one of the greatest examples of Dravidian architecture, which dates to the 11th cent., when Thanjavur was capital of the Hindu Chola kingdom. The city passed under British rule in 1799.