Michael Walzer, 1935–, American political philosopher, b. New York City, attended Brandeis Univ. (B.A., 1956), Cambridge (1956–57), and Harvard (Ph.D., 1961). A prominent liberal thinker and prolific author, Walzer has written about many areas of political theory and moral philosophy. He is probably best known for his work on the morality of war, discussed in his classic Just and Unjust Wars (1977) and the more recent Arguing about War (2004). His work also has concentrated on issues of nationalism, ethnicity, economic justice, the welfare state, tolerance and accomodation, and the history of Jewish political thought. Other books include Political Action (1971), Spheres of Justice (1983), What It Means to Be an American (1992), and Politics and Passion (2004). Co-editor of Dissent magazine, Walzer is also a frequent contributer to the New York Review of Books and New Republic. Walzer has been a professor at Princeton (1962–66), Harvard (1966–80), and the Institute for Advanced Study (1980–).