Wilson, Edward Osborne
Edward Osborne Wilson, 1929–, American sociobiologist, b. Birmingham, Ala. Founder of sociobiology, Wilson was educated at the Univ. of Alabama and Harvard, joined the Harvard faculty in 1956, and later became a professor of zoology. His exhaustive study of ants and other social insects, on which he is the world's chief authority, led to his Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975), a controversial work on the genetic factors in human behavior in which Wilson argued that all human behavior, including altruism, is genetically based and therefore
He later called for careful study of
Critics have called sociobiology a dangerously reductive determinism that could be used to defend notions of racial superiority and eugenics; others have defended Wilson's evidence and biological reasoning.
Wilson's On Human Nature (1978) won the Pulitzer Prize; Biophilia (1984) suggests that human attraction to other living things is innate; Consilience (1998) urges wider integration of the sciences; and The Creation (2006) pleads for a unified effort by secular and religious thinkers to save the earth's biodiversity. A long-time advocate of preserving biodiversity, he and Robert H. MacArthur wrote The Theory of Island Biogeography (1967), which examined and sought to explain how isolated natural communities acquire and lose species; the work had significant negative implications for the attempted preservation of species and environments in areas of limited extent. Other books by Wilson are Insect Societies (1971), The Diversity of Life (1992), The Ants, with Bert Hölldobler (1990; Pulitzer Prize), The Future of Life (2002), The Superorganism, also with Hölldobler (2008), The Social Conquest of Earth (2012), a novel, Anthill (2010), The Meaning of Human Existence (2014), and A Window on Eternity (2014), on the destruction and rebirth of Mozambique's Gorongosa National Park. Letters to a Young Scientist (2013) is an autobiographical celebration of a life devoted to scientific exploration and a suggestion of the many areas of science yet to be investigated.
See his autobiography (1994).