fertility drug

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

fertility drug

fertility drug, any of a variety of substances used to increase the possibility of conception and successful pregnancy. Different methods are used to correct or circumvent the many different functional disorders of both males and females that can interfere with conception and childbearing (see infertility). The term fertility drug primarily refers to drugs that mimic or stimulate production of a hormone necessary for conception, but it may also be used to refer to the hormones themselves, when they are administered as part of a program of infertility treatment.

The most common cause of female infertility is failure to ovulate. In certain cases this can be corrected with the drug clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene). Introduced in 1967, clomiphene stimulates the release of the gonadotropic hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH functions to stimulate the ovarian follicle (the egg and its surrounding fluid and hormones); LH triggers ovulation. In some studies, clomiphene has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Clomiphene is also used to stimulate spermatogenesis in men with low sperm counts.

Human menopausal gonadotropin, or menotropin (Pergonal), introduced in 1970, is an extract from the urine of menopausal women. It contains FSH and LH and encourages ovulation. It is often given together with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone secreted by the placenta during pregnancy and obtained from the urine of pregnant women. Its action is similar to that of luteinizing hormone. In males the same combination is given to increase testosterone production, which in turn increases sperm production.

Urofollitropin (Metrodin) is essentially follicle-stimulating hormone without luteinizing hormone. It is used especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, who tend to have too little FSH and too much LH. A frequent result of ovulation induced by these drugs is the production of more than one ovum (egg) in a month, and subsequent multiple births.

Progesterone is a female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. It is released by the ovary after the ovum is released. It is administered in cases where fertilization of the ovum does occur but where there is evidence that the uterine lining is unable to support the developing fetus, as in repeated miscarriages or bleeding during pregnancy.

See also DES (diethylstilbestrol).

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

fertility drug
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.