Looks Can Be Deceiving: Construction Planners Now Balance Safety with Education When Designing, or Redesigning, Schools. (Special Section: School Security)
Silverman, Fran, District Administration
Administrators in the Metropolitan School District in Wayne Township, Ind., had a clear idea of what they wanted to accomplish when they renovated Ben Davis High School last year. In addition to adding 250,000-square-feet of space to the nearly 40-year-old school, they wanted to make the high school "clearly" safer.
That meant that hallways were reconfigured to give dear, straight lines of sight, the central office and guidance department were moved near the front entrance so visitors and students have to pass office personnel when entering, and electronic locks were installed on every door.
The district also installed more than 100 surveillance cameras and built a camera monitoring room to view the dosed-circuit television. The work didn't stop at the front door; new perimeter lighting was added to the building and lighting was installed in the parking lot.
In past decades, school planners designed new buildings or renovated existing structures with energy efficiency, ventilation, clear exits in case of fire, and wiring for technology in mind. Now, school officials are checking blueprints to make sure hallways have no nooks that prevent a clear line of sight, that stairways have windows and that school administrators' offices are situated throughout the building for better student oversight. When it comes to school construction nowadays, experts say security and armor is a key focus.
"In every school district we work with, security is an issue," says Dennis Young, executive vice president for Wm. B. Ittner architects in St. Louis, which has been designing school structures since 1899. "It's become part of the package."
Schools across the nation are set to spend about $27 billion for about 8,000 new buildings, additions and renovations in 2003. But with school shootings on everyone's mind and heightened terror alerts, school officials are running their designs by security experts before approving any plans.
"Often, a beautiful design doesn't make for the safest building," says Chuck Hibbert, coordinator for safety and transportation services for the Metropolitan School District of Wayne Township in Indiana.
Seeking a Balance
School officials say they hope to use crime prevention designs to offset the need for more intrusive security technology. But the compromise is not easy. School officials must balance designs that provide a positive educational environment with designs that maximize security.
"Real security is being able to have an environment that is safe and at the same time not turning schools into prisons," says Corey Duber, senior director of security for Wake County Public Schools in Raleigh, N.C.
School officials must also balance tight budgets that call for certain designs that maximize space. Many educators, for example, like school structures that have many nooks and crannies that can be storage space. But these same spaces, experts say, can provide hideouts for intruders and violent students. Instead, security officials recommend straight hallways that provide clear lines of sight.
Straight hallways are one of several elements in the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design protocol, a recommended design plan by architects with security expertise, that many school designers follow when devising plans for new education facilities. Other elements include:
* Stairwells with big windows to allow for more light and oversight
* A central reception office right near the doorway, where students and visitors will enter and exit
* Small bays of lockers for unobstructed oversight by hallway monitors
* Clearly visible common areas
* Wider hallways to prevent overcrowding and heighten tensions
* Department head offices scattered throughout the building for more natural supervision of students
* Limited shrubbery and level landscaping to provide optimum oversight of outdoor perimeter areas. …