The Effect of Chromaticity Varies with Object Identification Response: Speeded Naming versus Recognition
Ryan, Carolyn S., Hemmes, Nancy S., Brown, Bruce L., The Psychological Record
One objective of the present study was to systematically replicate Biederman and Cooper's research. A second objective was to extend that investigation to the stimulus attribute of color by evaluating effects of chromaticity and shape on speeded naming and recognition responses. Similar to the effect of size on object identification, the effect of color appears to be influenced by the type of object identification response required. Under different discrimination procedures, chromaticity has been found to have a positive effect, no effect, or a negative effect on identification. For naming, chromaticity had a positive effect in a number of experiments (Biederman & Ju, 1988, Experiment 3; Davidoff & Ostergaard, 1988, Experiment 2; Ostergaard & Davidoff, 1985, Experiments 1A, 2A, & 3; Price & Humphreys, 1989); however, adverse or no effects of color on naming responses have also been found in three other experiments (Biederman & Ju, 1988, Experiments 1 & 2; Ostergaard & Davidoff, 1985, Experiment 2B). In studies using verification or classification responses, chromaticity had no effect on identification (Biederman & Ju, 1988, Experiments 4 & 5; Davidoff & Ostergaard, 1988; Experiment 1); however, Price and Humphreys (1989) did find an advantage of congruent chromaticity on classification. Mixed effects have also been obtained for old/new recognition responding (Boynton & Dolensky, 1979; Cave et al., 1996; Ostergaard & Davidoff, 1985; Seamon et al., 1997; Suzuki & Takahashi, 1997). Further, magnitude of the Stroop effect appears to vary with the method used by the participant to name the color of the Stroop stimuli (for a review, see Durgin, 2000).
The present report extends this literature by studying the effects of chromaticity on two object identification responses--oral speeded naming and oral recognition (same/different) responding--under identical stimulus conditions. The effects of chromaticity on naming (rather than speeded naming) and recognition were compared in a previous study. Ostergaard and Davidoff (1985) found that colored photographs presented tachistoscopically were named more quickly than achromatic photos, but that chromaticity had no effect in a recognition task employing the same stimuli. Similarly, Seamon et al. (1997), using chromatic images only, found that hue did not affect recognition responding in a study comparing recognition and affective responding. In contrast, Joseph and Proffitt (1996) found that congruently colored objects were recognized more easily than incongruently colored objects. Cave et al. (1996) compared speeded naming and recognition when hue varied between the first and second presentation of each stimulus (study and test exposures). Stimuli were monochromatic line drawings appearing in one of four colors in Experiment 1, or one of two colors in Experiment 2. Stimulus duration was variable; stimuli remained visible until the participant responded. Speeded naming latency or accuracy did not vary as a function of change in stimulus hue from study to test; however, in contrast to the findings of Ostergaard and Davidoff and Seamon et al., change in hue did produce a small decrement on recognition performance.
In the present study stimuli were 2-dimensional drawings with textural depth cues. Chromatic stimuli were realistically colored with multiple hues. Stimulus duration was fixed (100 ms), and a mask immediately followed each stimulus. Three experiments were conducted in a systematic replication of Biederman and Cooper's (1992) study that showed an effect of image size on affected recognition, but not on speeded naming responses. In each experiment, a priming procedure was used under which a sequence of 28, 2-dimensional representations of common objects was presented two times in succession. Shape and/or size (Experiment 1) or shape and/or chromaticity (Experiments 2 and 3) of the objects could change between their first and second exposures. …