The Canada-U.S. Border: Achieving an Efficient Inter-Organizational Policy Coordination

By Therrien, Marie-Christine | Canadian-American Public Policy, September 2003 | Go to article overview

The Canada-U.S. Border: Achieving an Efficient Inter-Organizational Policy Coordination


Therrien, Marie-Christine, Canadian-American Public Policy


I. INTRODUCTION

The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States have triggered many questions concerning the security of the Canada-U.S. border. As events unfolded on that day, the actual border was closed for only a little more than 24 hours, but it still created significant difficulties for thousands of travelers and businesses. The attacks exposed one of the paradoxes of recent globalization: accelerating movements of goods and people across national boundaries make it ever more difficult for governments to ferret out transnational terrorist threats. Hence, 9/11 events increased pressure on Canadian and American agencies regulating cross-border charged with managing the flow of goods and people more effectively. Many of these agencies now responsible for thwarting terrorist incursions have already experienced increased workloads due to cutbacks imposed on them over the past decade. After 9/11 the media raised questions about insufficient resources, lack of communication and misinterpretations affecting cross-border regulatory agencies. Still, one question has seldom been asked: could a systemic business model help the agencies to implement anti-terrorist policies more effectively using resources and support systems already in place? To argue this case, first Part II presents a few facts on the Canada-U.S. border and then outlines those measures that the two different countries have put in place intuitively to help better coordinate their anti-terrorist strategies at the interagency and intergovernmental level. Then, Part III puts forward a systemic model which might help the different Canadian and American agencies responsible for cross-border management to create more efficient strategies for implementing improved border security policies that would assess the potential danger of terrorist attacks.

II. BORDER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

A. The Importance of the Border

The U.S.-Canada border consists of 130 land crossings along the longest unfortified boundary in the world at 8,890 kilometers. Two hundred million crossings take place each year, and traffic is expected to grow at the rate of 10 percent annually over the next decade. (www.can-am.gc.ca) As previously mentioned, the attacks on 9/11 caused the United States to close its borders for about a day. Given the fact that more than U.S. $1.2 billion worth of goods cross the U.S-Canada border every day in the most important (in dollar value) trading relationship in the world, it is apparent that even the brief closing that took place on 9/11 must have exerted a profound impact.

B. How did Canada and the U.S. Respond?

As the Canadian and American governments geared up to fight terrorism they both realized that their actual governmental structures were somewhat inadequate to deal with these issues. As with many crises, it was soon realized that a better coordination between different government agencies was required. The 9/11 events showed clearly the difficulties in coordination between intelligence agencies such as the CIA and the FBI and also between INS, U.S. Customs, the Coast Guard and the Bureau of Consular Affairs, all of which shared border management (Moynihan and Roberts, 2002). For example, the U.S Customs Service has had to take into account more than 400 laws and 34 international treaties, agreements and conventions on behalf of many federal agencies.

In response to these problems, the U.S. government created a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) which brought together 22 federal departments with different directorates to better coordinate responses to terrorist threats against the continental U.S. DHS represented the greatest restructuring since the Cold War-spawned reorganization dating from 1947.(www.dhs.gov). Under DHS the U.S. Customs Service, the INS, the Federal Protective Service, the Transportation Security Administration, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, and the Office for Domestic Preparedness merged into a Border and Transportation Directorate which is now responsible for insuring border security. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Canada-U.S. Border: Achieving an Efficient Inter-Organizational Policy Coordination
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.