Water Supply in Karachi
Jabbar, Bushra, Economic Review
Water Supply in Karachi
The existing water supply network in Karachi is over 100 years old and has become outdated and defective. Most of the mains have outlived their useful life and require renovation and replacement.
The water demand of this thickly populated city is 492 million gallons daily, while the supply of water is limited to 355 (if nothing goes wrong). It shows a deficiency of water upto 90 MGD. This deficiency is likely to increase to 468 MGD by the year 2000, when the demand would be 820 MGD. The on-coming projects will however, take care of the part of the demand for all uses, thereby leaving a gap of 268 MGD between supply and demand for which new proposals will have to be drawn up.
Losses in water supply through leakage are 30 per cent. If this leakage is controlled, and 30 per cent is saved, it is sufficient enough to meet the water requirement of Karachi.
Karachi water and sewerage Board is taking certain
necessary actions to overcome this problem. Such as:
Scientific study has been initiated for Leak Detection
and Repair techniques under UNDP assistance through
A Leak Detection and Repair Cell has been created
and over 2000 leakages repaired so far.
21 km Rehabilitation of Trunk Mains are near to completion
under IDA credit 1374 - Pak, to save losses in
the distribution system.
A Consumer Education Cell has also been established
to educate people to minimise wastage.
Presently, there is a deficiency of water both in residential
areas and industries, due to which the sanitary
conditions in the city are deteriorating and industrial
production is badly suffering. Sufficient data on water
consumption in different areas of the city is not available
which is essential to analyse the existing situation
and undertake planning for the future. Water consumption
surveys are required to be conducted regularly
as part of the water supply service. Karachi water
supply system is grossly deficient one in many respects.
The transmission mains and distribution system is old
and inadequate to distribute the water equitably as
many areas cannot be fed through the network and
have to be served through tankers at all times.
Frequent power breakdowns occur, causing disruption
both in bulk supply and area distribution.
The system is complex and highly vulnerable. Even
minor setbacks disrupt the supply to many areas and
major breakdowns paralyse the whole system.
The main bulk transmission system (syphon 19/20,
Hub canal/Kinjhar Guffo canal) is also very vulnerable.
There are substantial leakages in the system (estimate
to be 30%)
A large portion of the quantity of water supplied to the consumers in Karachi turns into sewerage. Presently, about 200 MGD of sewerage waste is being generated in the city but treatment capacity is limited to 45 MGD (20%) only.
With the increase in water supply, the sewage generation is expected to increase to 392 MGD by the year 2000. Due to the lack of the quality control in the manufacture of pipes and poor construction of sewers, the resulting sewerage system is not built up to the standard. This causes problems in operation and maintenance of the sewerage system.
A nominal quantity of sewerage is treated through water treatment plants, constructed at Gharo 1, Gharo 2, COD Hills, Pipri and North East Karachi.
All plants treat water derived from the River Indus. The remaining resources from Dumlotee and from the Hub are disinfected by chlorination alone.
Untreated sewage flows increasing continuously with the increase in water supply. Large amount of sewage flows into the adequate existing system. …