Interleukin 6 May Tie Depression to Heart Disease

By Goldman, Erik L. | Clinical Psychiatry News, January 2004 | Go to article overview

Interleukin 6 May Tie Depression to Heart Disease


Goldman, Erik L., Clinical Psychiatry News


NEW YORK -- Interleukin 6 could be the hidden link between depression and cardiovascular disease, Gregory Miller, Ph.D., said at a symposium sponsored by the National Association for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression.

Currently, more than 30 studies show clear and significant associations between depression, MI, and cardiovascular mortality. Among them is the widely publicized research by Nancy Frazier Smith and her colleagues at McGill University, Montreal, which showed that high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory during the first week after MI correlated strongly with reduced 5-year survival.

Dr. Miller of the department of psychology at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, said this rapidly expanding body of data raises questions about how depression exacerbates cardiovascular disease.

"How does a so-called 'brain' disorder, a nebulous psychological state like depression, get into the body to increase the risk of something so physical as a heart attack?"

In an attempt to answer this question, Dr. Miller has been studying the immune system and the inflammatory mediators involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. "Coronary plaques form as a result of an inflammatory process, and we wondered whether depression somehow fosters this process."

He began by collecting blood samples from physically healthy, but clinically depressed, individuals in their 20s and 30s, and also from healthy, nondepressed, age-matched control subjects. There were no other psychiatric or medical differences between the two groups, and no histories of substance abuse or medication use in either cohort.

A study of the mean levels of various cytokines and immunomodulators between the two groups revealed two key findings: The level of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a key inflammatory cytokine, was 50% higher in the depressed individuals. The mean level of C-reactive protein (CRP), thought to be a very accurate predictor of MI risk, was 40% higher in the depressed individuals.

This latter finding is particularly troubling because the depressed subjects had a mean CRP level of 3.5 mg/L. According to the American Heart Association's current guidelines for cardiovascular risk assessment, any CRP level above 3 mg/L suggests high risk for cardiovascular disease. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Interleukin 6 May Tie Depression to Heart Disease
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.