Intensive Family Preservation Services: Demonstrating Placement Prevention Using Event History Analysis

By Kirk, Raymond S.; Griffith, Diane P. | Social Work Research, March 2004 | Go to article overview

Intensive Family Preservation Services: Demonstrating Placement Prevention Using Event History Analysis


Kirk, Raymond S., Griffith, Diane P., Social Work Research


This study re-examined the ability of intensive family preservation services (IFPS) to prevent out-of-home placements of children in abusive or neglectful families. A retrospective, population-based design was used. The sample comprised a statewide, six-year, archival population of high-risk child protective services children. The study ensured a high degree of treatment fidelity among service providers, controlled risk factors that may have adversely affected findings in earlier studies, and used event history analysis to examine treatment effects. IFPS significantly reduced placement rates or delayed placements of children compared with children of the same risk level but who received traditional child welfare services. Treatment effects increased as risk increased. In contrast to previous research, IFPS is shown to be effective in reducing out-of-home placements when model fidelity is high and the service is appropriately targeted.

Key words: event history analysis; family preservation; outcomes; placement; placement prevention; risk factors

**********

Intensive family preservation services (IFPS) are time-limited (usually four to six weeks), intensive, in-home services designed to prevent the removal of children from home as a result of abuse or neglect (Kinney, Haapala, & Booth, 1991). This study responds to studies that challenged the effectiveness of IFPS in preventing out-of-home placements. Many of those studies used experimental designs and attempted to achieve a high degree of scientific rigor (Feldman, 1991; Shuerman, Rzepnicki, Littell, & Chak, 1993; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2001; Yuan, McDonald, Wheeler, Struckman-Johnson, & Rivest, 1990). Studies using experimental designs have produced equivocal findings, begging a review of the designs and methods used. Evidence exists that the research may have failed to detect treatment effects rather than demonstrate a lack of treatment effects (Fraser, Nelson, & Rivard, 1997).

Design, model fidelity, and implementation issues may have compromised findings in these studies (Fraser, Nelson, & Rivard, 1997; Heneghan, Horwitz, & Leventhal, 1996; Pecora, Fraser, Nelson, McCroskey, & Meezan, 1995; Rossi, 1992). Rossi (1991, 1992) suggested that equivocal findings in early evaluations might have been due to differences in experimental and control groups with respect to true risk of placement before receiving IFPS. Inadequate attempts by workers to judge risk or refer only high-risk cases resulted in lower-risk cases being served. The most recent federal study (DHHS, 2001) attempted to resolve this issue using a specially designed risk-referral instrument, but the authors reported that the new tool did not identify high-risk families for random assignment (DHHS).

Theoretically, IFPS is intended for the highest risk families. However, low placement rates for both experimental and control groups in most earlier studies suggest that lower-risk families were actually receiving IFPS. Under these circumstances, treatment effects would be mitigated when placement prevention is used as the dependent variable.

A number of reviewers (Berry, 1992; Fraser, Walton, Lewis, Pecora, & Walton, 1996; Meezan & McCroskey, 1996; Rossi, 1991; Wells & Whittington, 1993) called for analysis of questions relating to family issues, family functioning, and multiple family outcomes to clarify the basis for placement prevention rather than relying solely on the placement prevention statistic. However, addressing criticism in the literature concerning the effect of family preservation services requires that placement prevention be included as an outcome.

Problems have also been noted with respect to statistical and analytic approaches used in past research. Fraser and colleagues (1997) conducted a meta-analysis of treatment effects in the treatment literature relating to mental health, juvenile services, and child welfare (including IFPS) and concluded that the studies might have failed to detect treatment effects rather than determine that treatment effects did not occur. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Intensive Family Preservation Services: Demonstrating Placement Prevention Using Event History Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.