The Health Knowledge Inventory-Alpha: A Personal Health Knowledge Test for High School Seniors

By Nicholson, Thomas; Case, Cara et al. | Journal of School Health, December 1991 | Go to article overview

The Health Knowledge Inventory-Alpha: A Personal Health Knowledge Test for High School Seniors


Nicholson, Thomas, Case, Cara, Price, Jimmie O., Higgins, Wayne, Thompson, Kelly, Journal of School Health


The importance of effective school health programs becomes increasingly obvious as the nation grapples with the AIDS epidemic and the growing burden of behavior-related chronic disease. [1-3] High school students are at risk for accidental injuries, sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, and lifestyle behaviors which can contribute to development of major chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer.

A well-developed health education effort at the hight school level is important because many students will not have an opportunity for organized health instruction after graduation. Since students in high school health education courses are graded on their performance, instructors employ various methods of evaluation. It would be useful, however, to have a standardized measure of health knowledge in the high school population to use as a program evaluation instrument and to enable researchers to make comparisons across programs. Excellent evaluation instruments for elementary students were developed in connection with the SHEE study. [4] Other standardized health knowledge tests exist but they tend to focus on one categorical area or population. [5-7] In addition, two general health knowledge tests have been available for some time, but neither has been revised recently. [8]

Standardized instruments appropriate for high school students generally are lacking. Use of standardized tests is widespread in American education and, with the move toward national achievement testing, their use is likely to increase. The availability of a current standardized health knowledge instrument for high school students offers health educators an opportunity to demonstrate health education needs in this population and, in combination with the SHEE instruments, provides the foundation for comprehensive assessment of health education in public schools. This need has been recognized by the Education Testing Service, which is currently developing a health knowledge instrument for the college population.

This study assessed validity and reliability of a modified version of the Health Knowledge Inventory (HKI) in a sample of high school seniors. [9] The HKI is a college-level, general health knowledge test. The format of the HKI is multiple choice consisting of 110 items, with 10 items from each of 11 health content areas: accidents and safety, aging and death, chronic disease, communicable disease, consumer health, environmental health, human sexuality, mental health, nutrition, physical fitness, and substance use/abuse. Test-retest reliability for the HKI is .89 (n = 505) while internal consistency reliability (KR20) is .90 (n = 2,329). Estimates of content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity are high. [10]

The HKI was reviewed by a reading specialist to assess readability of the test for high school seniors. This review indicated the reading level of the HKI was above 12th grade. An accepted practice among reading teachers is the placement of readers in materials approximately two grade levels below their actual grade level. The reading level appropriate for high school seniors is a placement below the 12.9 grade level. The revised HKI averages between the 9th and 10th grade levels of difficulty. Certain difficult words and phrases were changed to common, understandable expressions, but the meanings remained unchanged. Also, long sentences were shortened or turned into two sentences. This action led to creation of the Health Knowledge Inventory-Alpha (HKI-Alpha) version which possess an appropriate reading level for high school seniors.

METHODS

All high school seniors attending one of four western Kentucky high schools completed the HKI-Alpha twice, one week apart, during the spring 1990 school semester. A secondary sample of college students enrolled in personal health classes at Western Kentucky University were assigned randomly to take either the HKI or the HKI-Alpha during the spring 1990 semester. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Health Knowledge Inventory-Alpha: A Personal Health Knowledge Test for High School Seniors
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.