Simulated and in Situ Vocational Social Skills Training for Youths with Learning Disabilities

By Clement-Heist, Kim; Siegel, Shepherd et al. | Exceptional Children, February 1992 | Go to article overview

Simulated and in Situ Vocational Social Skills Training for Youths with Learning Disabilities


Clement-Heist, Kim, Siegel, Shepherd, Gaylord-Ross, Robert, Exceptional Children


Social skills are critical for both in-school and out-of-school performance of students with learning disabilities. Fortunately, research and curriculum efforts in social skills training (e.g., Goldstein, Sprafkin, Gershaw, & Klein, 1980; Hazel, Schumaker, Sherman, & Sheldon-Wildgen, 1981) have demonstrated an effective instructional technology for acquisition of social skills. Nevertheless, there is still much work to be done in demonstrating generalization to a number of criterion settings. Work settings have received increasing attention because of the federal transition initiative (Will, 1984; P.L. 98-199, Education for the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1983) and because social skills are clearly important for obtaining and maintaining employment.

Several studies have examined social skills training methodologies within vocational contexts. For example, Mathews, Whang, and Fawcett (1982) found that vocational social skills, such as accepting negative feedback, providing constructive criticism, and explaining a problem to a supervisor, were performed at lower levels by adolescents with learning disabilities than by their peers without disabilities. Subsequently, they taught two adolescents with learning disabilities job-related social skills. These skills included: explaining a problem to a supervisor, accepting a compliment, acceptig an instruction, providing constructive criticism, and offering a compliment. Instruction included written descriptions of each task, examples of appropriate performance (modeling), rationales for task use, rehearsal through role-play, feedback, and study questions. As measured by novel role-play situations in the training setting, the youths demonstrated substantial increases in their skill performance following training.

Another study designed to teach social skills relevant to occupational situations to adolescents with mild and moderate disabilities was conducted by Montague (1988). The 49 students had been identified as either learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, or mildly mentally retarded. The 10 job-related social skills targeted for instruction included (a) understanding instructions, (b) asking a question, (c) asking for help, (d) accepting criticism, (e) ordering job responsibilities, (f) accepting assistance, (g) giving instruction, (h) offering assistance, (i) apologizing, and (j) convincing others. These skills were taught over a 10-week period according to specifically scripted lessons. The actual teaching procedures included modeling, active participation, verbal rehearsal, directed questioning, visualization, cueing, guided practice, role-playing, feedback, and reinforcement. The training package increased job-related social skills within the training setting. Anecdotal data as well as student, parent, and teacher perception surveys indicated limited but promising transfer of skills from the classroom to the work environment. Montague noted, however, that further investigation would be necessary to accurately measure the student's transfer and maintenance of these skills in the workplace.

Studies of social skills training for students with learning disabilities have generally reported substantial transfer to novel role-play situations. However, Schumaker and Ellis (1982) stated, "Findings indicated that performance in novel role-play situations do not necessarily reflect how a learning disabled student will generalize newly learned social skills to the natural environment" (p. 413). Research on training strategies that may increase generalization to natural settings is limited. Warrenfeltz et al. (1981) found generalization of trained vocational social skills across settings and people. The training program employed both role play and self-monitoring techniques. However, because the techniques occurred simultaneously, it was impossible to isolate or assess their separate effects on generalization. Subsequently, Kelly et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Simulated and in Situ Vocational Social Skills Training for Youths with Learning Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.