Dual Technology in the Philippines
THIS paper is based on a study trip funded by Inwent at Mannheim, Germany. A two-week training for TVET promoters was headed by the writer as Board Member with the TESDA Deputy Director, Regional Directors and two private implementors of dual training from PNOC and Del Monte Philippines.
What is Dual Technology?
The Philippine passed the Dual Training Act in 1994 under President Fidel V. Ramos. Dual technology covers theory and practice. It has a competency based curriculum divided into learning modules. After so many years, there are now many government and private schools that practice dual training in the different regions in the Philippines.
To the advantage of the trainees under this system, employment and placement is easier as trainees are absorbed by the training partner.
In TESDA we have a Dual Training System (DTS).
DTS is a training system which combines theoretical and practical learning. It is dual system because learning takes place alternately in two places school and enterprise.
For the trainees, DTS means a wide range of employment opportunities. For the company, DTS is a guarantee for good business and long-term growth. For the school, DTS assures a high placement rate for graduates and institutional prestige.
With the Philippines growing population of 84 million which will be 100 million by 2020, jobs will be scarcer for university graduates. In the Philippines, technical-vocational graduates are looked down as inferior but these graduates can easily be employed practicing their skills or by getting jobs abroad. Dual tech graduates sometimes earn more than their university counterparts.
The problem with the Philippine Dual Training Act is that industry is willing to accept students as trainees but not as workers. But the labor sector demands that trainees be paid the minimum wage, thus, making it difficult to implement successfully and widely the dual-tech law.
In the Philippines, the option of high school graduates is either the short courses or university.
Historical Background of Dual Technology in Germany
In Germany since the Middle Ages, the traditional practice was only incompany training. Costs were borne by the companies and training was regulated by Chambers. After 1950 it was realized by government that increasing theory can not be taught in workshops.
Since 1920 there was a clamor to place in-company training under the auspices of the state. In the 1927 Vocational Training Act, vocational learning was a venue with the growing influence of the trade unions.
After 1950 it was realized by government that increasing theory can not be taught in workshops.
Vocational schools were established with 80 percent incompany training and 20 percent attendance in vocational school. Vocational schools were run and paid by government. Finally in 1969, a new Vocational Training Act was passed. This Vocational Training Act 1) places the training in the hands of firms and chambers, thus emphasizing the principle of self-government; 2) pays tribute the "Dual System" as a whole; and 3) covers both the public and private sphere of vocational education.
In 1975 there was a change an enlarged model of the 80 percent-20 percent. Since there was a demand for increasing specialization of small and medium companies An Inter-Company Training Center (ICTC) was established by the chambers supported by public funds. The new model was 65 percent practice, 25 percent theory, and 10 percent ICTC.
The German Educational System
In Germany, there are three types of post secondary education. They are: University of cooperative education (Berufsakademie) 4 half-years Basic Theory and practice and 2-half-years theory and practice or equivalent to six semesters of 3 years. The other is university of applied science (Fachhochschule) has eight semester or four years, includes internship of one year. …