Saving Funds on Correctional Telephone Systems

By Swain, Rick | Corrections Today, July 2003 | Go to article overview

Saving Funds on Correctional Telephone Systems


Swain, Rick, Corrections Today


In the business of corrections, security and safety are always concerns. However, one of the most frequently used security and safety devices is overlooked as a way to save money. Telephones are used daily to communicate security and safety problems a correctional facility may have. With small investments, the common telephone could permit an agency to move those dollars to more important areas that may require staff's attention. By using state-of-the-art technology and monitoring expenditures, it is surprising what a telephone bill can reveal.

When an order is received to do more with less or the legislature has just cut the correctional budget by 4 percent again, what is to be done? The last time the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction was ordered to reduce its budget, "Save money wherever possible" and "If you can use technology to do it effectively, consider using that technology," were often heard. There are several ways to help save the public's funds without causing a reduction in safety, security or loss of service, and one of the best ways to do this is to eliminate recurring spending. In response to the high cost of its monthly phone bill, a field telecommunications technician at Ross Correctional Institution in Chillicothe, Ohio, obtained a quote from the local supplier of parts for the Electronic Private Business Exchange (EPBX) to upgrade the telephone system, which would permit the use of a T-1 Primary Rate Interface. The technician was then given a cost estimate for installation of a T-1 by the local telephone company to determine if there would be a substantial savings and other advantages that would be available by using this type of configuration.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Understanding the Jargon

A T-1 is a digital transmission link that was developed by AT & T in 1957 and implemented in the 1960s to support long distance pulse-code modulation voice transmission. The primary reason for this newly developed method was to use the limited number of copper telephone lines around the world while carrying the ever-increasing number of telephone calls. This was long before the employment and wide use of optical fiber instead of copper cable. A T-1 has the capacity to carry 1.544 megabits per second and when broken down fractionally, can carry 24 channels, each running at 64 Kilobits per second. All digitized sound is carried over two single wires commonly called a twisted pair. New equipment is required at both ends of the T-1 to convert the analog voice signal to a digital code at one end and reverse the process at the other end.

In the past, the use of pulse-code modulation, which is normally performed at a sample rate of 8,000 times per second to make the analog-to-digital conversion, caused voices to sound a little mechanical. In addition, a slight delay of the signal, due to the older, slower equipment, was used for making the analog-to-digital conversion. Now, there is hardly any noticeable delay and the voice quality is more natural when using a T-1.

EPBX, also referred to as a switch, permits staff to call every extension in the facility and place calls to telephones outside it. Most of them have many other features including an "off hook" alarm that, when properly employed, can be set off when officers or other staff may require some type of assistance. If installed in the past 10 years, each EPBX should have the capabilities of interfacing with the newer high-capacity digital telephone lines that most local or regional telephone companies offer as an alternative to POTS (plain old telephone system) trunk lines. A trunk is a communication line between an institution's EPBX and the larger exchange switch at the local telephone company that carries only one telephone call at a time.

POTS is the basic telephone service supplying the standard single-line telephone or telephone trunks. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Saving Funds on Correctional Telephone Systems
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.