Turkish Tin Mine Revises Bronze Age History

By Pennisi, Elizabeth | Science News, May 9, 1992 | Go to article overview

Turkish Tin Mine Revises Bronze Age History


Pennisi, Elizabeth, Science News


By training their analytical tools on pottery fragments discovered in Turkey, scientists have pieced together a new picture of how Bronze Age people there obtained tin, a key raw material for making bronze.

Throughout the Near East, bronze artifacts from 4,500 years ago attest to the Importance of this valuable copper-and tin alloy to those cultures. In that region, archaeologists have unearthed many copper mines, with tons of waste ore, or slag, nearby.

"But we've known nothing about where the tin came from," says archaeologist Vincent C. Pigott of tile University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. A low records have pointed to mountains In Afghanistan as the nearest source and described tin as a key trade commodity, he adds.

In 1989. however, archaeologtist Aslihan Yener of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. D.C., discovered tin ore at Goltepe, located In mountains about 500 miles southeast of Ankara, Turkey. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal residue on pottery fragments and another dating technique Indicate that an ancient people extracted tin there around 2,500 B.C., says Smithsonian materials scientist Pamela Vandiver. She described the tin-extraction methods In San Francisco last week at the spring meeting of the Materials Research Society,

"It's not only the earliest, but it is also the only Bronze Age evidence to date of tin processing [In the Near East]," Pigott says.

At the Goltepe site, the Smithsonian researchers counted 250,000 grindstones near the mine's mouth. They also collected crucible fragments from remains of a walled compound with several pit houses, By studying the chemical condition of 24 pottery fragments brought back to the Smithsonian, Vandiver and her colleagues pieced together this ancient process. They used X-ray fluorescence to analyze the fragment surfaces and black, glassy drops stuck to the fragments.

Today, mining companies extract tin by smelting ore: When heated to about 1,350'C, the tin flows out of the ore and settles on the bottom of a furnace. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Turkish Tin Mine Revises Bronze Age History
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.