Rebels Impede Peace Process in Burundi

By Ngala, Joseph Adero | National Catholic Reporter, October 1, 2004 | Go to article overview

Rebels Impede Peace Process in Burundi


Ngala, Joseph Adero, National Catholic Reporter


The recent murder of more than 150 Congolese refugees in Burundi underscores the continuing instability hi central Africa.

Ten years of civil war have ravaged Burundi, killing at least 150,000 civilians and uprooting hundreds of thousands more with negligible notice from the rest of the world. Today, more than 400,000 Burundian refugees are scattered throughout Africa's central and Great Lakes regions.

An additional 400,000 Burundians, unable to escape the country's targeted and indiscriminate violence, are displaced from their homes within the country's borders.

Only half of Burundi's estimated six million citizens have access to potable water. One in 10 is infected with HIV/AIDS. United Nations agencies estimate that the AIDS epidemic and a decade of civil war have orphaned more than 275,000 Burundian children, including thousands who survive as refugees in neighboring countries.

Unpredictable violence and poor security have all but stopped delivery of much-needed humanitarian assistance to most of the country.

The killing of an estimated 159 to 180 refugees Aug. 13 by armed Hutu attackers belonging to Burundi's National Liberation Forces (FNL) is indeed shameful and disturbing. The refugees were massacred at Gatumba camp in western Burundi, close to Burindi's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. The camp provides shelter for approximately 2,000 mostly Tutsi Congolese refugees known as Banyumulenge.

In an interview, Fr. Joachim Omolo Ouko, a member of the Apostles of Jesus, said thousands of Banyamulenge refugees have taken shelter in camps in Burundi run by a United Nations refugee agency after fleeing the Democratic Republic of Congo in the past few months. The Democratic Republic of Congo was formerly known as Zaire.

Thousands of refugees have fled the Democratic Republic of Congo since June, fearful of being targeted by government troops, local militia and Congolese civilians in the war between government and rebel forces there.

Without any fanfare, some African leaders set a precedent Aug. 18 at the 22nd Summit of the Great Lakes Regional Peace Initiative on Burundi. At the summit in Dares Salaam, Tanzania, the leaders declared the rebel faction known as FNL-Palipehutu (FNL is the French acronym for National Liberation Forces) a "terrorist organization."

Burundi's National Liberation Forces were the focus of the meeting. "We are going to take action provided for by protocols governing terrorism both nationally and international and act decisively against the group," Mkapa said.

That must have been music to many Burundians. After all, the FNL remains the only major obstacle to the completion of a patiently worked out program that should allow Burundians to get on with normal life.

The leaders who met in Dares Salaam went to the heart of the matter: The FNL has no cause. In all fairness, that is not true of Agathon Rwasa's group, once better known as PALI-PHUTU. The latter had roots in the 1965 suppression of a Hutu-led coup d'etat. That attempt resulted from King Mwambusta IV's decision to appoint a Tutsi prime minister when Hutus had decisively won elections.

From then on, the Hutus, who made up 85 percent of the population, were deliberately shut out of political power. Whenever they attempted to crawl upward, they were ruthlessly suppressed. When a Hutu-dominated party won elections in 1993 and produced a president, diehard Tutsi dispatched him. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Rebels Impede Peace Process in Burundi
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.