Similarities and Differences between Religiosity and Spirituality in African American College Students: A Preliminary Investigation

By Berkel, LaVerne A.; Armstrong, Tonya D. et al. | Counseling and Values, October 2004 | Go to article overview

Similarities and Differences between Religiosity and Spirituality in African American College Students: A Preliminary Investigation


Berkel, LaVerne A., Armstrong, Tonya D., Cokley, Kevin O., Counseling and Values


To explore similarities and differences between religiosity and spirituality, the authors used several measures of religiosity and spirituality to examine the level of their association in 171 African American college students. Results support the multidimensionality of both constructs. An intrinsic religious orientation accounted for most of the variance in each type of spirituality; conversely, 1 type of extrinsic religious orientation accounted for almost none. The authors also found no significant differences between men's and women's scores on any of the religiosity and spirituality measures, The authors discuss implications for addressing religion and spirituality with African American clients.

**********

Spirituality is emerging as a significant area of inquiry for physical and mental health professionals (for a review see George, Larson, Koenig, & McCullough, 2000). Defined as the degree to which individuals endorse a relationship with God or a transcendent force that brings meaning and purpose to their existence, spirituality affects the ways in which one operates in the world (Armstrong, 1996). Research in this area has consistently shown evidence of associations between spirituality and both mental and physical health (e.g., Larson & Larson, 2003). Given this important association, it is vital for scholars to better understand how spirituality relates to other variables of interest in health research, particularly religiosity.

Spirituality and Health

Several scholars have investigated relationships between spirituality and several aspects of health. For example, MacDonald and Holland (2002) investigated associations between spirituality and boredom in a sample of university undergraduate students. Using a multidimensional measure of spirituality, the authors found that existential well-being, that aspect of spirituality that provides meaning and purpose to one's life, was negatively correlated with boredom for both men and women. In another study, Hodge, Cardenas, and Montoya (2001) investigated religious participation and spirituality as protective factors against substance use for a sample of rural youth. They found that increased spirituality inhibited the youth from using marijuana and hard drugs. On the basis of this finding, they recommended that spirituality be incorporated into substance use prevention programs for adolescents. Pardini, Plante, Sherman, and Stump (2000) were also interested in correlations among religious faith, spirituality, and mental health outcomes and substance abuse. Using a sample of adults recovering from alcoholism and drug addiction, Pardini et al. found that the adults who had higher levels of spirituality also had an optimistic life orientation, higher resilience to stress, greater perceived social support, and lower levels of anxiety. These findings remained after controlling for social desirability effects. It is interesting that, in both studies cited, spirituality's role in health outcomes was different from the role of religion. In the case of the recovering addicts, "spirituality accounted for more explained variance than religious faith for most mental health outcomes" (Pardini et al., 2000, p. 351). Hodge et al. found that whereas religious participation was related to decreased alcohol use, spirituality was related to decreased marijuana use.

A small but growing body of literature focuses specifically on relationships between spirituality and health for African Americans (e.g., Brome, Owens, Allen, & Vevaina, 2000; Musgrave, Allen, & Allen, 2002). For example, Hestick, Perrino, Rhodes, and Sydnor (2001) found that African American college students who viewed spirituality as an important factor in their lives were at a reduced risk of becoming lifetime smokers. In a separate study, African American and Latino women living with AIDS/HIV reported that spirituality was an important source of strength, and this strength was associated with lower levels of depression (Simoni & Cooperman, 2000). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Similarities and Differences between Religiosity and Spirituality in African American College Students: A Preliminary Investigation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.