Address Entry While Driving: Speech Recognition versus a Touch-Screen Keyboard

By Tsimhoni, Omer; Smith, Daniel et al. | Human Factors, Winter 2004 | Go to article overview

Address Entry While Driving: Speech Recognition versus a Touch-Screen Keyboard


Tsimhoni, Omer, Smith, Daniel, Green, Paul, Human Factors


INTRODUCTION

Motor vehicle manufacturers expect that in the near future, a significant share of their profits will be associated with the sales of telematic devices--that is, computer-based in-vehicle information and communication systems such as cell phones and navigation systems (Richardson & Green, 2000). There is concern, however; that using such devices may overload drivers and increase crash risk. This includes visual-manual interfaces that capture driver attention and induce drivers to look at the road less often (e.g., Wierwille & Tijerina, 1998) and auditory-speech interfaces, such as phone systems, for which the cognitive demands of conversation reduce awareness of the driving situation (e.g., Strayer, Drews, & Johnston, 2003).

Of the telematic tasks of concern during driving, entering a street address into a navigation system is often mentioned, and manual entry has been the topic of several studies (e.g., Chiang, Brooks, & Weir, 2001 ; Farber et al., 2000: Nowakowski, Utsui, & Green, 2000; see Green & Shah, 2003, for a review.)

Speech input is believed to be the ideal modality for information entry because it should present less competition for visual resources. However, speech interfaces with auditory feedback are not without cost. Lee, Caven, Haake, and Brown (2001), for example, found a significant delay in response time to braking events of a lead vehicle when drivers interacted with an auditory-speech system. In one of the few studies comparing interlace modalities for destination entry, Tijerina, Parmer, and Goodman (1998) found that a particular character recognition voice interface had shorter task times, required fewer glances, and had shorter mean glance durations than did several other manual interfaces.

Speech interfaces based on word recognition and the effect of recognition accuracy on driver performance have not been examined. At first thought, word-based recognition would seem ideal. In real systems, however, errors will occur and feedback needs to be provided to the driver. Often, for reasons of cost, speed, and technology, feedback is provided visually, leading to unknown visual and cognitive demands that compete with the primary task of driving.

To make cost-benefit engineering decisions regarding interface design, these aspects of speech recognition systems should be quantified. The current experiment considered them by comparing speech recognition of addresses with entry of the same addresses using a touch-screen keyboard. Speech recognition was split into word-based and character-based recognition. The latter method imitates keyboard entry using speech instead of key presses, allowing for a better comparison of the difference between speech input and motor input. Recognition accuracy was experimentally controlled and fixed across participants to provide some insights regarding the effects of errors on performance. Finally, driving performance was evaluated at the vehicle control level. For that kind of analysis, using curves of varying curvatures has been shown to be an effective method to keep the visual demands of the driving task steady (Tsimhoni & Green, 2001).

The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of manual and voice entry methods on task performance and vehicle control as a function of several controlled levels of visual demand of driving. (Note: See Tsimhoni, Smith, & Green, 2001, the report on which this paper was based,)

METHOD

Participants

Twenty-four licensed drivers participated in this experiment, 12 younger (age 20-29 years, mean = 24) and 12 older (age 65-72 years, mean = 69), with equal numbers of men and women in each age group. Participants were recruited via an advertisement in the local newspaper and were paid $40. All participants had far visual acuity of 20/40 or better. All had midrange (80 cm) visual acuity of 20/70 or better and no color deficiencies. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Address Entry While Driving: Speech Recognition versus a Touch-Screen Keyboard
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.