Entrepreneurship and Fitness: An Examination of Rigorous Exercise and Goal Attainment among Small Business Owners*

By Goldsby, Michael G.; Kuratko, Donald F. et al. | Journal of Small Business Management, January 2005 | Go to article overview

Entrepreneurship and Fitness: An Examination of Rigorous Exercise and Goal Attainment among Small Business Owners*


Goldsby, Michael G., Kuratko, Donald F., Bishop, James W., Journal of Small Business Management


In today's society, the benefits of exercise and fitness are given much publicity. However, the relationship between exercise and the attainment of personal and professional goals for entrepreneurs has not been examined. Our study addresses the issue by examining the exercise regimens of 366 small business owners and the relationship of exercise frequency with the company's sales and the entrepreneur's personal goals. Specifically, this study examines the relationship that two types of exercise--running and weightlifting--have with sales volume, extrinsic rewards, and intrinsic rewards. Results indicate that running is related positively to all three outcome variables while weightlifting is related positively to extrinsic and intrinsic rewards but not to sales. Suggestions then are provided for future research.

**********

Introduction

Over the years, researchers have examined various aspects of the entrepreneurial personality, including perceptions (Cooper, Woo, and Dunkelberg 1988), intentions (Bird 1988), behavior (Shaver and Scott 1991; Bhave 1994), risk taking (Brockhaus 1980; Das and Teng 1997; Mullins and Forlani 1998), and alertness (Busenitz 1996). Most recently Kickul and Gundry (2002) examined the proactive personality in relation to small firm innovation. While these studies demonstrate the importance of the different aspects of the entrepreneurial personality, the dimension of physical fitness and its relation to the entrepreneurial outcomes has yet to be examined.

In today's society, health and fitness are given much publicity. Advertisements, magazine articles, and television shows trumpet the benefits of exercise and encourage people to undertake a fitness regimen. The importance of exercise increasingly is being stressed in entrepreneurship periodicals as well. For example, at the turn of the millennium, articles such as "To Your Health" (Spaeder 1999), "Healthy Choice" (Kooiman 2000), and "The Other Bottom Line" (Friedman 2000) were published in Inc. and Entrepreneur. Indeed, it would make sense that an exercise program may lead to a less stressful and more productive life for the entrepreneur. However, busy schedules and the challenge of maintaining a fitness regimen lead many people to quit these programs soon after starting them and to return to their more sedentary, yet stressful, lifestyles. Attaining excellent physical condition requires developing a mindset that accepts and embraces hard work. If small business owners were willing and able to grant their physical health the same respect they do their financial and professional well-being, most would be in incredible physical condition. Concomitantly, good physical condition should contribute to entrepreneurs' success in reaching their personal and financial goals. Hence, our research question is

Research Question: Are entrepreneurs who maintain a fitness regimen of rigorous exercise more effective in goal attainment as expressed by intrinsic and extrinsic rewards?

While Inc., Entrepreneur, and other small business popular periodicals have supported this view, there has been no empirical study in the academic literature to support this contention. We believe that examining the role of exercise in entrepreneurial success is important because of the extreme time constraints and conditions of stress that challenge small business owners (Bird and West 1997; Kuratko and Hodgetts 2004). With personal capital at stake in the running of a small business, there is a possible trade-off between exercise and time spent managing the company. Simply put, time spent exercising is time away from running the business. Also, larger companies--the source for the samples for other studies on exercise--are afforded the luxuries of more coverage of task responsibility, greater access to on-site fitness equipment, and more financial resources and corporate relationships for providing access to fitness club memberships. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Entrepreneurship and Fitness: An Examination of Rigorous Exercise and Goal Attainment among Small Business Owners*
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.