Russian Student Views on Business Ethics: Post-Enron

By Ludlum, M. P.; Moskaloinov, Sergey | College Student Journal, March 2005 | Go to article overview

Russian Student Views on Business Ethics: Post-Enron

Ludlum, M. P., Moskaloinov, Sergey, College Student Journal

Russian business students (n--447) were surveyed in the fall of 2002 to determine their attitudes towards business ethics. The results were then divided into several demographic groups: gender, tobacco user, stockholder, year in school, and whether the student had taken a course in business ethics. Significant differences in the demographic subgroups were discovered.


Russia is an emerging former socialist economy, only having private businesses in the economy since the 1980s (Apressyan, 1997; Enderle, 1997; Deshpande, George, and Joseph, 2000). Ethical problems are commonplace, as the contradictory and confusing economic regulations in the emerging capitalistic economy struggle to become established (Hisrich, Bucar, and Oztark, 2003; Apressyan, 1997).

For Russian business managers, there is little guidance on ethical issues. Business ethics as a discipline is just getting started, with no journals, and few studies (Ahmed, Chung, and Eichenseher, 2003: Apressyan, 1997). There is a shortage of ethics cases and ethical theory for Russian business students (Enderle, 1997). It is dangerous to assume Russian business owners will simply follow Western notions of business ethics without any guidance (Deshpande, George, and Joseph, 2000).

Survey of Recent Literature

There has been very little research on Russian students' attitudes towards western business concepts (Ahmed, Chung, and Eichenseher, 2003; Enderle, 1997). In one of the few studies of Russian business students, Ahmed, Chung, and Eichenseher, (2003) found a negative relationship between years of education and ethical attitudes.

Recent work in the United States shows a link between unethical views during college and unethical behavior in the workforce (Nonis and Swift, 2001a; Knotts, Lopez and Mesak, 2000; Sanders, 2002; Silver and Valentine, 2000, Nonis and Swift, 2001b, Johns and Strand, 2000; Rawwas and Isakson, 2000). While these findings are preliminary, they point to the importance of this line of research. The attitudes students have now translate into behaviors they will have in the business world. Today's college students will be the next generation of business employees, owners, managers, and regulators. Reiss and Mitra (1998, p. 1581) explained, "In order to study the attitudes and behaviors of future organizational leaders one can look to current university business students." If correct, the future of Russia's views on business ethics depends on the attitudes of the current students.

The few studies on business ethics within Russia use samples of current Russian business managers rather than students. In a recent study using a variety of business scenarios, Russian business managers demonstrated very low ethical values in comparison with Turkey, Slovenia, and the United States (Hisrich, Bucar, and Oztark, 2003).

Also working with Russian business managers, Deshpande, Joseph, and Maximov (2000) found that there were strong differences in the ethical views of male and female managers in Russia, with female managers having a much stronger ethical orientation. Similar findings were made by several recent surveys of Russian managers and business workers (Stewart, Sprinthall, and Kern, 2002; Zarkada-Fraser and Fraser, 2001; Welsh, Luthans, and Sommer, 1993) and from more in depth interviews as well (Neimanis, 1997).


A sample of business students were taken from classes at Ulyanovsk State University in the fall semester of 2002. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire during class time. The University has an enrollment of over 10,000 students and over 1000 faculty. The University offers over fifty degree programs for undergraduates and graduates. As a result of the classes used to draw students, all survey respondents were business majors. A complete description of demographic information is as follows:


Students were asked their views on a series of seven questions of business ethics in general, and the effects of recent ethical scandals in American businesses. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Russian Student Views on Business Ethics: Post-Enron


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.