Gildersleeve: Soldier, Scholar; Severely Wounded in Battle; Taught Greek, Latin at UVa
Byline: Richard P. Cox, SPECIAL TO THE WASHINGTON TIMES
Most Civil War readers are familiar with Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, the learned professor who left the halls of academe to answer his country's call and became the hero of Little Round Top. Few, however, recall the name of Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, a Confederate scholar-soldier who was the South's Chamberlain.
Gildersleeve served honorably, if somewhat eccentrically, in the Army of Northern Virginia, and his wartime experiences left a permanent mark on his literary work.
By any estimation, he was one of the greatest classical scholars the United States ever produced.
He was born in Charleston, S.C., in 1831, the son of a Presbyterian minister who never held a pulpit but owned and edited religious newspapers.
Showing an early talent for learning and languages, Gildersleeve wrote that he had read the Bible from cover to cover when he was 5 and before he was 13 had learned enough Latin to get through Caesar, Cicero, Virgil and Horace and enough Greek to "make out" the New Testament.
He entered Princeton as a junior and graduated fourth in his class in 1849. He studied classical philology in Germany and earned a doctorate from the University of Gottingen in 1853. Just before his 25th birthday, he began a 20-year career as a professor at the University of Virginia, where he taught Greek and Latin.
Considering himself "a Charlestonian first, Carolinian next, and then a Southerner," he left no doubt where his sympathies lay when hostilities broke out in 1861.
He joined the Confederate army but, unlike Chamberlain, did not take a leave of absence from his teaching duties. The University of Virginia, unlike most other Southern colleges, did not close its doors during the war and struggled on with a student body made up of the maimed, the wounded and boys too young for military service.
Gildersleeve "soldiered" during summer vacations from the university. In successive summers, he served on the staff of the 21st Virginia Infantry and was a private in the 1st Virginia Cavalry. The summer of 1864 saw him on the staff of Gen. John B. Gordon.
While carrying orders for Gordon, he was wounded when a bullet from a Spencer rifle broke his thighbone and his leg was nearly amputated.
Of that experience Gildersleeve later wrote, "I lost my pocket Homer, I lost my pistol, I lost one of my horses, and finally I came very near to losing my life from a wound which kept me five months on my back."
Gildersleeve convalesced at the home of Gen. Raleigh Colston, whose eldest daughter, Elizabeth, nursed him and married him two years later. His wound left him with a permanent limp, and on returning to full-time teaching, he became something of an institution at UVa., famous for his biting wit.
On one occasion, he was able to help a fellow prodigy. In 1868, a 16-year-old student petitioned to be awarded a bachelor's degree after only one year at the university. He said his family was too poor to continue supporting his studies. A panel appointed to review his petition was impressed with his brilliant record but refused him a degree.
The student countered that if he couldn't receive the bachelor of arts degree, would the university award him a medical degree the next year if he could finish the medical course in that time? Gildersleeve was on the panel and urged his colleagues to give the boy a chance. The next year, Dr. Walter Reed received his medical degree.
Gildersleeve was one of the first professors appointed when the Johns Hopkins University opened its doors in 1876, and his remaining years were spent in Baltimore.
He founded the American Journal of Philology in 1880 and edited it for 40 years. In addition to his teaching and editorial duties, Gildersleeve produced several books of critical essays and scholarly studies as well as an influential study of the Greek poet Pindar, "Syntax of Classical Greek," and a Latin grammar that is still in print. …