Listing Occupational Carcinogens
Siemiatycki, Jack, Richardson, Lesley, Straif, Kurt, Latreille, Benoit, Lakhani, Ramzan, Campbell, Sally, Rousseau, Marie-Claude, Boffetta, Paolo, Environmental Health Perspectives
The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. Key words: cancer, environment, epidemiology, occupation, review. Environ Health Perspect 112:1447-1459 (2004). doi:10.1289/ehp.7047 available via http://dx.doi.org/ [Online 15 July 2004]
Occupational carcinogens occupy a special place among the different classes of human carcinogens. The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology and pathogenesis of human cancer. Up to the 1970s, most recognized human carcinogens were substances or circumstances found primarily in the occupational environment, and although this may no longer be true with the growing list of recognized non-occupational carcinogens, they still represent a large fraction of the total. Although it is important to discover occupational carcinogens for the sake of preventing occupational cancer, the potential benefit of such discoveries goes beyond the factory walls because most occupational exposures find their way into the general environment, sometimes at higher concentrations than in the workplace.
There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various national and international bodies have published lists of carcinogens, but available lists of occupational carcinogens have been limited in various ways. Among the issues that are often missing, or treated rather casually, are a coherent assessment of which substances should be considered occupational carcinogens; information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found; and the target sites of cancer. The present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs.
Methods and Results
Difficulties in listing occupational carcinogens. Although it seems like a simple enough task, it is very difficult to draw up an unambiguous list of occupational carcinogens. The first source of ambiguity concerns the definition of an "occupational" carcinogen. Most occupational exposures are also found in the general environment, and/or in consumer products; most general environmental exposures and consumer products, including medications, foods, and others, are found in some occupational environments. The distinctions can be quite arbitrary. For instance, although tobacco smoke, sunlight, and immunosuppressive medications are not primarily considered to be occupational exposures, there certainly are workers whose occupations bring them into contact with these agents. …