Ban Stands: Canadian Municipalities Have the Power to Restrict Pesticide Use Thanks to the Supreme Court and Hudson, Quebec

By Cooper, Kathleen; McClenaghan, Theresa | Alternatives Journal, July 2005 | Go to article overview

Ban Stands: Canadian Municipalities Have the Power to Restrict Pesticide Use Thanks to the Supreme Court and Hudson, Quebec


Cooper, Kathleen, McClenaghan, Theresa, Alternatives Journal


WHEN the Supreme Court of Canada unanimously decided in June of 2001 that the small community of Hudson, Quebec, had the legal power to ban pesticide use, community activists from coast to coast celebrated a sweet victory.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

The court denied an appeal (that had already lost in two levels of the Quebec courts) by two lawn care companies. The court confirmed that Hudson had the power, as do most municipalities in Canada, to set by-laws that respond to community concerns and that protect the general welfare of the public.

The motivation for the Hudson by-law, and the efforts of thousands of others across Canada, came primarily from mothers of young children. During the 1980s, this constituency of concerned parents had objected to pesticide spraying in parks and school grounds. The occasional headaches, nausea or rashes were difficult to trace to pesticide use. More seriously, those affected with chemical sensitivities could not go outside. For the most part, health effects were not directly evident, just worrisome. Especially galling was the fact that the spraying seemed completely unnecessary.

Throughout the 1990s, authoritative scientific reports drew attention to the special vulnerability of children to environmental pollution. Pesticides were particularly singled out for posing risks of birth defects, cancer, developmental delays, motor and nervous system dysfunction and immunotoxicity. People questioned placing children at risk for the sake of lawn care.

Many local authorities began to restrict pesticide use. Some acted merely to cut costs. More often, with health and environmental goals in mind, pesticides on public lands were dramatically reduced, in some cases by 90 to 100 percent. Hudson, Quebec, was the first to go after the sacred ground of private property in 1991.

The Hudson by-law bans pesticide use across the board. It does allow for a series of exceptions. For example, the ban ensures that public health officials can approve the use of pesticides to protect public safety for situations like water purification or insect outbreaks. The end result is a ban on the outdoor use of pesticides on public and private property for cosmetic purposes.

With the final resolution of Hudson's ten-year court battle, municipalities across the country have come under more pressure than ever to enact pesticide by-laws. Many have taken the plunge--over 70 pesticide by-laws are now in place in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and British Columbia. Dozens more are actively under consideration in those and other provinces.

However, after Hudson's ten-year ordeal, municipalities are afraid of their by-laws being challenged in the courts. So far, Hudson-style by-laws, like the one passed by the City of Toronto, have withstood such challenges. CropLife, a pesticide industry lobby group, has challenged the City of Toronto's by-law, but both the trial-level court and the Ontario Court of Appeal have upheld it as valid. The three judges of the latter court unanimously rejected all arguments advanced by CropLife and echoed the Supreme Court decision in Hudson.

The Appeal Court concluded that "absent an express direction to the contrary in the Municipal Act, 2001, which is not there, the jurisprudence from the Supreme Court is clear that municipal powers, including general welfare powers, are to be interpreted broadly and generously within their context and statutory limits, to achieve the legitimate interests of the municipality and its inhabitants." In other words, despite the fact that Ontario amended its Municipal Act following the Hudson decision, those amendments did nothing to change the ability of the City of Toronto to exercise the by-law-making powers that were confirmed in the Hudson decision.

When an issue is headed for the courts, citizens or community groups can apply to organizations like Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA) or Sierra Legal Defence Fund (SLDF) for representation. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Ban Stands: Canadian Municipalities Have the Power to Restrict Pesticide Use Thanks to the Supreme Court and Hudson, Quebec
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.