From Self-Supported to State-Supported Administration of Summer Programs: The California State University's Conversion to Year Round Education

By Demetrulias, Diana | Summer Academe, January 1, 2005 | Go to article overview

From Self-Supported to State-Supported Administration of Summer Programs: The California State University's Conversion to Year Round Education


Demetrulias, Diana, Summer Academe


Introduction

Published studies of administrative and organizational models for summer sessions are minimal and yield equivocal results regarding organizational advantages and effectiveness of management practices when comparing self-support and state-supported summer schools. More typical are historical and recent studies that conceptualize the effectiveness of organizational structures defined as centralized or decentralized. While definitions vary, centralized models typically are defined as self-funded summer terms administered by an autonomous summer session office. Decentralized organizational structures are generally described as a more distributive model in which summer term functions are performed by various collegiate units with dispersed accountability and generally are state-funded. Hybrid organizational models are also described in the literature. These hybrid models typically are structured as centralized administration with decentralized academic functions.

A few recent examples follow: Martin (2003) summarized various myths associated with summer education and described the role of summer term as a catalyst for change, concluding that self-supported, revenue-sharing models have the highest success for attracting students and faculty--attributed primarily to an entrepreneurial, innovative spirit. Heikel (2000) studied the program effectiveness in centralized vs. decentralized administrative structures at four-year U.S. public research and doctoral institutions. Among the results were the conclusions that decentralized summer sessions were rated as less financially successful and more often found at larger universities while centralized models were rated as more successful in meeting student needs, more administratively efficient, and typically found at smaller universities. Funding models were highly varied ranging from self-generated income to allocation of funds to other permutations, but in general the self-support model was typical for centralized programs while decentralized programs were more reliant on funding allocations. Although data indicate a general ten-year trend for an increased number of decentralized programs, the change is slight, with the largest number of summer sessions continuing to be described as a centralized organizational structure. In studying the fiscal practices of doctoral research universities for characteristics of operating budgets, Johnson (2000) found that 57% of the universities used an allocation model, 38% were funded by self-generated income, and 5% used a decentralized approach in which revenue was directed to the college unit responsible for its generation.

Earlier studies by Young and McDougall (1985 and 1982) of both U.S. and Canadian institutions of higher education provided data about regional universities, master's only, and land grant universities. Their data of organizational structures, productivity measures, program creativity, leadership, and finance yielded significant differences associated with institutional size, among other demographic variables. Young and McDougall's 1991 study also provided normative information about summer session baseline data derived from one regional and four national studies and serves as a resource for the historical development, trends, issues, and evaluations of summer sessions. Saville and Master's (1989) survey of operational characteristics of summer programs at 107 U.S. land grant colleges and 15 private universities yielded mixed results regarding organizational advantages and management practices in comparing self-supporting and state-supported summer schools.

Heikel (2000) recommends that summer sessions be administratively centralized and programmatically decentralized. This hybrid model provides for curricular decisions and programmatic quality to be monitored by faculty, thereby controlling the curriculum, teaching faculty, student enrollments, and revenue sharing. It also allows for efficient administrative operations by an extended education or summer term office, providing fiscal efficacy and managerial efficiency. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

From Self-Supported to State-Supported Administration of Summer Programs: The California State University's Conversion to Year Round Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.