Sir John Murray: (1841-1914) the Founder of Modern Oceanography, John Murray Pioneered Research on the Ocean Depths and Oceanic Sediments and Was a Leading Light in Marine Biology

By Amodeo, Christian | Geographical, September 2005 | Go to article overview

Sir John Murray: (1841-1914) the Founder of Modern Oceanography, John Murray Pioneered Research on the Ocean Depths and Oceanic Sediments and Was a Leading Light in Marine Biology


Amodeo, Christian, Geographical


What was his background?

John Murray was born on 3 March 1841 in Coburg, Ontario, Canada, to Scottish parents. He travelled to Scotland to study at Stirling High School before entering Edinburgh University to study medicine. However, he soon left to join a whaling expedition to Spitsbergen as ship's surgeon. He then returned to Edinburgh to complete his studies, this time in geology under Sir Archibald Geikle and natural philosophy under Sir Peter Guthrie Tait.

What did he achieve?

While still at Edinburgh, Murray joined the crew of naturalists aboard HMS Challenger, a steam assisted corvette, which sailed from Portsmouth in December 1872 for a three-year expedition to explore the world's deep oceans. At the end of the voyage, expedition leader Charles Wyville Thomson appointed him assistant in drawing up the scientific results, which were to lay the foundations of almost every branch of modern oceanography. Murray took over from his colleague when the stress of producing the report became too great, and went on to edit and publish more than 50 volumes, completed in 1896.

The survey set out to answer many of the basic questions about the physical and biological characteristics of the open oceans--indeed Murray coined the term 'oceanography' Depth soundings mapped the shape of the ocean floor, revealing the existence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and of oceanic trenches.

Evidence was also obtained of a rich and varied fauna in the very deepest regions, and samples taken led to the discovery of 4,000 new animal species. Analysis of temperature variation and specific gravity at depth revealed a complex system of sub-surface currents. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Sir John Murray: (1841-1914) the Founder of Modern Oceanography, John Murray Pioneered Research on the Ocean Depths and Oceanic Sediments and Was a Leading Light in Marine Biology
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.