Assessing the Sensitivity of Different Life Stages for Sexual Disruption in Roach (Rutilus Rutilus) Exposed to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works

By Liney, Katherine E.; Jobling, Susan et al. | Environmental Health Perspectives, October 2005 | Go to article overview

Assessing the Sensitivity of Different Life Stages for Sexual Disruption in Roach (Rutilus Rutilus) Exposed to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works


Liney, Katherine E., Jobling, Susan, Shears, Jan A., Simpson, Peter, Tyler, Charles R., Environmental Health Perspectives


Surveys of U.K. rivers have shown a high incidence of sexual disruption in populations of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) living downstream from wastewater treatment works (WwTW), and the degree of intersex (gonads containing both male and female structural characteristics) has been correlated with the concentration of effluent in those rivers. In this study, we investigated feminized responses to two estrogenic WwTWs in roach exposed for periods during life stages of germ cell division (early life and the postspawning period). Roach were exposed as embryos from fertilization up to 300 days posthatch (dph; to include the period of gonadal sex differentiation) or as postspawning adult males, and including fish that had received previous estrogen exposure, for either 60 or 120 days when the annual event of germ cell proliferation occurs. Both effluents induced vitellogenin synthesis in both life stages studied, and the magnitude of the vitellogenic responses paralleled the effluent content of steroid estrogens. Feminization of the reproductive ducts occurred in male fish in a concentration-dependent manner when the exposure occurred during early life, but we found no effects on the reproductive ducts in adult males. Depuration studies (maintenance of fish in clean water after exposure to WwTW effluent) confirmed that the feminization of the reproductive duct was permanent. We found no evidence of ovotestis development in fish that had no previous estrogen exposure for any of the treatments. In wild adult roach that had previously received exposure to estrogen and were intersex, the degree of intersex increased during the study period, but this was not related to the immediate effluent exposure, suggesting a previously determined programming of ovotestis formation. Key words: differentiation, effluent, endocrine, fish, wastewater treatment works.

**********

A widespread occurrence of sexual disruption has been reported in freshwater and marine fish in Europe (Hecker et al. 2002; Jobling et al. 1998; Lye et al. 1997; Minier et al. 2000; Vethaak et al. 2002), Japan (Hashimoto et al. 2000), and the United States (Folmar et al. 2001; Munkittrick et al. 1998), and some of these effects have been linked with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals emanating from wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents. Sexual disruption is defined as disruption of gonadal development in terms of either altered duct formation and/or development of ovotestis. The most commonly documented feminizing effect of WwTW effluents in fish is induction of vitellogenin (VTG; an estrogen-dependent yolk precursor) (Purdom et al. 1994). Other feminizing effects of WwTW effluents include altered sex steroid hormone levels in adult and juvenile fish (Folmar et al. 1996; Hecker et al. 2002), impaired gonadal development in adults and juveniles (Hemming et al. 2001; Jobling et al. 2002a), altered timing of sexual differentiation in early life stages (Rodgers-Gray et al. 2001), and gonadal intersex (gonads containing both male and female characteristics) (Jobling et al. 1998). Gonadal intersex includes disruption of the gonadal duct, where the male duct is feminized to form a female-like ovarian cavity, and/or the presence of both male and female germ cells within the same gonad (Nolan et al. 2001). Intersex has been reported in a wide variety of gonochoristic species of wild freshwater and marine fish worldwide (Allen et al. 1999; Harshbarger et al. 2000; Hashimoto et al. 2000; Jobling et al. 1998; Kavanagh et al. 2004; van Aerie et al. 2001).

The most extensive studies on the feminizing effects of WwTW effluents in wild fish have been conducted on the roach (Rutilus rutilus) living in U.K. rivers where surveys of >50 river sites have found a high incidence of intersex in roach populations living downstream from WwTW effluent outlets (Jobling et al. 1998). The incidence and severity of the intersex condition were correlated with the proportion of WwTW effluent in the river and the population equivalent of the WwTWs (strength of the effluent) (Jobling et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Assessing the Sensitivity of Different Life Stages for Sexual Disruption in Roach (Rutilus Rutilus) Exposed to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.