Counterfeit Drugs

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, May-August 1993 | Go to article overview

Counterfeit Drugs


Over the last 10 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of reports of counterfeit drugs, i.e., drugs whose identity and/or source have been deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled. The scale of the problem is impossible to gauge accurately; however, the Counterfeit Intelligence Bureau estimates that 5% of total world trade in 1991 was in counterfeit goods; for pharmaceuticals that are in high demand and are easily transported this proportion is likely to be higher. Counterfeiting of drugs occurs worldwide and changes in international trading conditions could lead to a further rapid increase in this activity.

A pharmaceutical product that is made with the same care that is assured within the legitimate manufacturing facility may not present a hazard to public health. Counterfeit products, in contrast, escape all modalities of control, and no assurance can be given about their quality. Such products may contain the labelled active ingredients in an acceptably bioavailable form that meets the relevant characteristics or contain too little of the therapeutically active substance. This may result in patients not receiving the right amount of active compound, and consequently, in their disease remaining untreated. Worst of all, the products may have been accidently adulterated or deliberately formulated using toxic industrial chemicals that have no place in pharmaceutical manufacture.

In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA 41.16 in which governments and pharmaceutical manufacturers were requested to cooperate in the detection and prevention of the increasing incidence of the export or smuggling of falsely labelled, counterfeit or substandard pharmaceutical preparations. Against this background, WHO and the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA) convened a joint workshop on 1-3 April 1992 in Geneva to discuss the problem. The workshop was attended by representatives from the International Chamber of Commerce, Interpol, the Customs Cooperation Council, the International Narcotics Control Board, the International Organization of Consumers Unions, the European Association of Industries of Branded Products, and GATT.

Below are summarized the recommendations made by the participants for action at various levels.

International level

* There is a need for a greater international awareness and acknowledgement of the hazards to health presented by counterfeit medicines. Political will is needed to mobilize resources for the implication of effective countermeasures. * A sound legal framework to deal with the problem is provided by the proposed anti-counterfeiting provisions in the draft GATT-TRIPS agreement, which is based on effective international trademark protection and supported by enforceable sanctions and penalties, including imprisonment. * Governments should implement appropriate legislation that identifies as a customs offence the import, national transit and export of counterfeit goods into, across, and out of their customs territories and should confer upon their customs services legal powers to seize the goods with a view to forfeiture if they prove to be counterfeit. * A mechanism should be established through which organizations can exchange information about the nature and extent of counterfeiting, the movement of counterfeit products, and the results of investigations into counterfeit operations. * A databank of cases should be established.

National level

* A legal and administrative framework needs to be in place to define and control the legitimate drug market and drug distribution system. A drug regulatory agency with a regisnation procedure is a prerequisite for this, and the workshop endorsed the WHO Guidelines for Small Drug Regulatory Authorities. Full use should also be made of the WHO Certification Scheme for Pharmaceutical Products moving in International Commerce. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Counterfeit Drugs
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.