The Status of Physical Education Performance Classes within Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Stier, William F., Quarterman, Jerome, Stier, Mark Martin, JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
Researchers in this investigation examined the current status of performance, activity, or service offerings provided by American HBCUs as well as the policies, procedures, and practices which affect such curricula and performance programs.
A comprehensive study that concluded in late 1991 revealed the present status of various aspects of physical education and athletic programs within four-year, historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) which offer a major in physical education. Ten specific areas in physical education and athletics within HBCUs were examined: the characteristics of each institution; the role of the department chairperson; status of physical education majors; characteristics of physical education faculty and staff; the performance class offerings; the professional preparation curriculum; the intramural and recreation activities; the intercollegiate athletic program; the facilities; and the administrative structure of the physical education and athletic areas.
This article provides an insight into the current status of activity, performance, or service class offerings and policies within selected HBCUs. The surveyed population was determined by using the criteria of HBCUs as noted in the 1987 Federal Register. Peterson's Annual Guide (Lehman, 1989) was used to identify HBCUs which offered an undergraduate major in physical education. Schools classified as HBCUs were accredited, four-year institutions which considered themselves as historically black colleges or universities, were established prior to 1964, and continue to have as their principal mission the education of African Americans. Two-year colleges and vocational, technical, and theological institutions were not included in the study. A total of 58 institutions met the above criteria.
To gather the data, the researchers used a revised version of an earlier questionnaire developed and used by Stier (1971; 1982, December; 1986). The physical education chairpersons of the target schools were sent the revised survey instrument. Accompanying the instrument was a letter of explanation and a stamped, self-addressed return envelope. Additional follow-up letters and instruments were subsequently sent. The response generated from the three mailings was 88 percent (N=51) for HBCUs returning usable questionnaires. Because not all of the questions were answered on each of the survey instruments which were returned, it was necessary to adjust the total number when appropriate in analyzing the final data. The data are provided in percentages. Earlier investigations which surveyed various populations of colleges and universities garnered similar but varied rates of return.
Purpose of the Study
Researchers in this investigation examined the current status of what is commonly referred to as performance, activity, or service offerings provided by American HBCUs as well as the policies, procedures, and practices which affect such curricula and performance programs. After reviewing the literature, the researchers did not discover any published studies which dealt specifically with the performance curricula within HBCUs.
However, several published studies have dealt with the general topic of physical education programs and teachers within HBCUs (Davis, 1970, 1980; Rice & Leslie, 1987; Crase et al., 1991). Other research investigations have dealt with the status of black physical education faculty members within all colleges and universities (Kirk, 1969; Henry, 1969; Harvey, 1986; Crase & Walker, 1988).
Table 1. Frequency of Performance Classes Offered Within HBCUs Provided in at Least 50% of the Responding Institutions Rank Type of Performance Percentage of Institutions Class Offering the Class 1.5 Volleyball 92 1.5 Tennis 92 3 Swimming-Beginner 88 4 Badminton 86 5 Dance-Aerobic 82 6 Golf 80 7 Basketball 76 8 Archery 77 9 Softball 73 10. …