How Collaboration and Research Can Affect School Counseling Practices: The Minnesota Story

By Miller, G. Dean | Professional School Counseling, February 2006 | Go to article overview

How Collaboration and Research Can Affect School Counseling Practices: The Minnesota Story


Miller, G. Dean, Professional School Counseling


Collaboration among various professional groups to enhance student learning is a very useful strategy. This article describes how one state, Minnesota, over time (1960-1990), employed collaboration among schools, universities, professional organizations, and the State Department of Education to affect student counseling practices where needed. Efforts were directed to investigate and integrate all components of the school counseling profession by beginning with the possible impact of current practice, then researching various implementation models based on appropriate psychological theories, and finally changing counselor certification and graduate education to close the gap between relevant theory and professional practice. Such efforts have supportive implications for the national standards of the American School Counselor Association.

**********

The National Society for the Study of Education, in a recent Yearbook, addressed the use of collaboration among various groups to affect student academic achievement. The groups included schools, universities, communities, and professions (Brabeck, Walsh, & Latta, 2003). One of the authors reviewed the necessary components for successful collaboration and identified the following: connecting and communicating, cooperation, coordination, community building, and contracting (Lawson, 2003).

THE VALUE OF COLLABORATION

This notion of collaboration parallels the experience in Minnesota to affect school counseling practices during a 30-year period (1960-1990). It confirms the above paradigm for collaborative success. Sequential efforts began with State Department of Education personnel, who were instrumental in initiating a series of activities to relate theory and research to strengthening the profession of school counseling. Various authors have stressed the importance of a research-based practice as fundamental to all professions (Greenwood, 1966; Gross, 1964) including counseling (Hanna & Bemak, 1997; Lapan, 2005). Additionally, developmental theory, research, and evaluation are a continuing need for program development (Aubrey, 1982; Bauman et al., 2003; Gysbers, 2004). Using student development as a guide to teaching and learning really goes back to Dewey (1904). He noted that once educators know the nature of developmental growth (in K-12), they then can establish the conditions necessary to encourage developmental learning. Developmental growth or maturity (personal competence, ego development, motivation, independence, and psychological maturity), not grade point average, predicted critical indicators of adult success (e.g., occupational success, mental health, and adaptation and competence; Miller, 1981; Sprinthall, 1980). This research about the importance of psychological factors over school grades tends to support Dewey's developmental approach to education.

NATIONAL SUPPORT FOR GUIDANCE COUNSELING: A BACKGROUND

The greatest influence on school counseling in America occurred four decades ago with the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958 (U.S. Office of Education, 1964). Although the primary purpose was to improve academic instruction, federal funds also were available to provide relevant career guidance for students. State Departments of Education were responsible for distributing these funds to local schools with qualifying programs of guidance, counseling, and testing.

State guidance personnel were responsible for approving each local program. This included reviewing each school's application as well as making onsite visits. After hundreds of program reviews were made, the nagging question surfaced as to whether or not these program standards made any actual impact on students. The need for evaluation, although not in the federal regulations, was actually raised earlier by the U.S. Office of Education staff (Wellman & Twiford, 1961).

HIGH SCHOOL GUIDANCE IMPACT STUDY

To examine the question of evaluation, a state committee representing various educational groups was convened to explore the major aspects of a state study of guidance and counseling in Minnesota. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

How Collaboration and Research Can Affect School Counseling Practices: The Minnesota Story
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.