Complex by Design: Investigating Pathways into Teaching in New York City Schools

By Boyd, Donald J.; Grossman, Pam et al. | Journal of Teacher Education, March-April 2006 | Go to article overview

Complex by Design: Investigating Pathways into Teaching in New York City Schools


Boyd, Donald J., Grossman, Pam, Lankford, Hamilton, Loeb, Susanna, Michelli, Nichola, Wyckoff, Jim, Journal of Teacher Education


New York City represents a microcosm of the changes that are shaking the very foundations of teacher education in this country. In their efforts to find teachers for hard-to-staff schools by creating multiple pathways into teaching, districts from New York City to Los Angeles are in the midst of what amounts to a national experiment in how best to recruit, prepare, and retain teachers. As more alternative pathways take root, university-based programs now compete with programs that allow participants to earn a salary as they learn to teach. Yet although policy debates about the relative value of teacher education and the benefits of different pathways into teaching are replete with opinion, they are lean on data.

At the heart of this debate is the desire to improve the performance of America's students, especially in urban schools. Although a number of factors contribute to student achievement, new research identifies teachers as one of the most important contributors to improved student outcomes (see, e.g., Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2000; Sanders & Horn, 1994; Sanders & Rivers, 1996). Even as research acknowledges the crucial importance of teachers, there is disagreement about the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is the best way to attract strong candidates (U.S. Department of Education, 2002), whereas others argue that investing in high-quality teacher preparation will better serve our nation's children (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996). Despite the stakes of this debate, there is relatively little systematic research documenting characteristics of individuals who prepare to teach in urban schools, how they select pathways into teaching, and the features of teacher education that might prepare teachers to be successful in urban, lowperforming schools (Wilson, Floden, & Ferrini-Mundy, 2001).

The research project described in this article is investigating different pathways into teaching in New York City schools and how features of those pathways make a difference to a variety of outcomes. These outcomes include whether people teach, where they teach, whether they stay in teaching, and what impact teachers have on student achievement. New York City provides a unique context in which to investigate these issues. For example, a combination of retirements and teacher turnover will require New York City to hire substantial numbers of new teachers during the next few years. In addition, new standards for high achievement by all students will place greater demands on new teachers. In low-performing schools with high proportions of poor and non-White students, the qualifications of teachers are already substantially worse than in better performing urban and suburban schools (see, e.g., Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2002). In many large cities, the need to improve teacher quality in these difficult-to-staff schools is particularly acute. As the demand for high-quality teachers increases as a result of demographic changes and policy initiatives such as class size reduction, these disparities will only worsen; schools with better working conditions and higher salaries will bid away the better qualified teachers from already difficult-to-staff schools. With this study, we hope to better understand how to attract, educate, and retain teachers in New York City to improve educational outcomes of students. (1) In this article, we describe the overall design and conceptualization for this research and explore some of the methodological challenges inherent in determining the impact of teacher preparation.

BACKGROUND TO STUDY

For many years, New York City resorted to hiring large numbers of uncertified teachers to meet its teaching needs. By 2000, a number of pathways into teaching in New York City existed, including the option of hiring teachers with baccalaureate degrees and no preparation to teach. Beginning in 2000, the New York State Regents sued the city to require certified teachers in all failing schools, also known as Schools Under Registration Review. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Complex by Design: Investigating Pathways into Teaching in New York City Schools
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.