The Relationship of Impulsiveness, Personal Efficacy, and Academic Motivation to College Cheating

By Angell, Lance R. | College Student Journal, March 2006 | Go to article overview

The Relationship of Impulsiveness, Personal Efficacy, and Academic Motivation to College Cheating


Angell, Lance R., College Student Journal


This investigation focused on the interrelationships among the frequency of cheating behaviors, impulsiveness, personal efficacy, and academic motivation. Sixty-one undergraduate students from a small private Catholic college in the Northeast completed the Academic Integrity Scale, subscales from Kurtines' (1978) Autonomy and Paulus' (1983) Spheres of Control scales, and Vallerand et al.'s (1992) Academic Motivation Scale. Correlations were slight and significant at the p & .05 level. Pleasure/Satisfaction was negatively related to Test Assistance and positively related to Accomplishing. Future Well-Being was positively related to Plagiarism and negatively related to Impulsiveness. Plagiarism and Amotivation were positively related, as were Accomplishing and Intelligence. These findings are unique in that researchers have rarely found individual difference variables to be related to cheating behaviors.

-----

As society places greater emphasis on achievement and success, college cheating has reached epidemic proportions. Pino and Smith (2003) and Haines, Diekhoff, LaBeff, and Clark (1986) found that slightly more than half of the students they surveyed reported having cheated. Whitley (1998) noted that an average of 70 percent of the respondents in 107 studies had cheated in college, and Stern and Havlicek (1986), Michaels and Miethe (1989), and Cochran, Chamlin, Wood, and Sellers (1999) reported more than 80 percent.

Prior research on individual or personality variables of students who cheat has failed to uncover many substantial relationships. One exception is that Schwartz, Feldman, Brown, and Heingartner (1969) investigated moral reasoning ability, a cognitive trait, and cheating, and found that fewer students on the highest (postconventional) level, the principled level of moral reasoning according to Kohlberg's (1981) theory of moral development, cheated than those on the middle (conventional) level.

But neither Tang and Zuo (1997) nor Thorpe, Pittenger, and Reed (1999) found an association between self-esteem and cheating. Perry, Kane, Bernesser, and Spicker (1990) and Huss et al. (1993) found no relationship between Type A (achievement-oriented) personality and propensity to cheat, although Davis, Pierce, Yandell, Arnow, and Loree (1995) did find Type A students more likely to cheat on tasks over which they had no control. Thorpe et al. found no relationship between locus of control (using Levenson's 1973 scale consisting of the Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance subscales) and academic dishonesty. Nor did Antion and Michael (1983) find a relationship. Thorpe et al. suspected that Antion and Michael's sample was not large enough to detect a small locus-of-control effect size, and also that no relationship was found because the researchers had used a dated, unrefined measure of the construct.

An increasing number of schools (e.g., Northeastern U., University of Maryland) have instituted academic honor codes to curtail academic honesty, but the results have been mixed. Since the code's inception at the University of Maryland, an increased number of cheating incidents have been reported, and the expectation is that the trend is likely to continue (Flandez, 2002). If honor codes are not as effective as first hoped, researchers should continue to isolate personality traits related to the propensity to cheat so that academia can begin to develop a general personality profile of students who engage in such behavior. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between two additional trait measures that are intuitively associated with college cheating, impulsiveness and Paulus'(1983) conception of personal efficacy, as well as to investigate the relationship between academic motivation and cheating.

Method

Sample and Procedures

A total of 61 undergraduate students from a small northeastern college completed the series of questionnaires described above assessing academic integrity, impulsiveness, personal efficacy, academic motivation, and socially desirable responding. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Relationship of Impulsiveness, Personal Efficacy, and Academic Motivation to College Cheating
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.