Structure and Measurement of Acculturation/enculturation for Asian Americans Using the ARSMA-II

By Lee, Richard M.; Yoon, Eunju et al. | Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, April 2006 | Go to article overview

Structure and Measurement of Acculturation/enculturation for Asian Americans Using the ARSMA-II


Lee, Richard M., Yoon, Eunju, Liu-Tom, Hsin-Tine Tina, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development


The structure and measurement of acculturation/enculturation was investigated on 2 Asian American samples. Factor analyses revealed similar 2-factor structures for both acculturation and enculturation. The factor-analytic-derived measure yielded scores with adequate reliability and marginal construct validity. Acculturation/enculturation differences by generation status, gender, and country region were also detected.

-----

Over the past decade, there has been increased research on the relevance of acculturation/enculturation to psychosocial development, physical and mental health, and service utilization (Berry, 1994; Kim & Atkinson, 2002; LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993; S. K. Lee, Sobal, & Frongillo, 2003). However, one of the persistent problems in this line of research has been how to best conceptualize and measure acculturation and enculturation for specific racial and ethnic groups (Kim & Abreu, 2001). In this article, we address conceptual and measurement issues related to acculturation/enculturation and describe two studies related to the validation of an existent acculturation measure for use with Asian American college student populations.

From a psychology standpoint, acculturation has long been conceptualized as the process by which individuals experience changes in their cultural values, behaviors, and cognitions when they come into continuous, firsthand contact with another cultural group, typically the dominant host culture (Graves, 1967). In the past, these changes were believed to occur in a unidimensional direction. That is, acculturation implied that individuals replaced the characteristics of their native culture with the characteristics of the dominant host culture. Gordon (1964) described this replacement process as a form of cultural assimilation that helped immigrants more readily adapt to and fit into their new host environments.

In recent years, this unidimensional model of acculturation has been criticized and challenged by social scientists, because the model is based on a flawed assumption that individuals cannot orient to more than one culture. It also privileges the notion of assimilation and implies deficiencies within the native culture. Research, however, finds that individuals are able to retain their native cultural characteristics while concurrently acquiring the characteristics of the dominant host culture (Berry, 1994; LaFromboise et al., 1993). That is, individuals are able to competently function in multiple cultural environments without necessarily experiencing feelings of marginalization (cf. Park, 1928; Stonequist, 1937).

The retention of the native culture (or acquisition thereof for U.S.-born children of immigrants) is commonly referred to as enculturation (Cortes, Rogler, & Malgady, 1994). Enculturation is believed to operate relatively independent of acculturation, although society may exert pressures toward assimilation and the relinquishment of one's ethnic culture and heritage (e.g., the English Only Movement). Acculturation and enculturation are now conceptualized more accurately as bidimensional or bicultural constructs. We are also aware that some individuals who have been exposed to multiple cultural contexts may develop a multidimensional cultural orientation (e.g., a Soviet Jewish refugee living in the United States).

In addition to being conceived as bidimensional (or multidimensional), acculturation and enculturation (hereafter referred to as acculturation/enculturation) occurs across multiple life domains and varies according to these domains. Researchers have focused primarily on behavioral changes in individuals to account for rates of acculturation and enculturation (e.g., language usage, food preferences, friendship patterns, and lifestyle choices). But, recently, researchers have expanded the operational definition of acculturation/enculturation to include other life domains, such as values, emotions, identity, and attitudes (Cuellar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995; Kim & Abreu, 2001). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Structure and Measurement of Acculturation/enculturation for Asian Americans Using the ARSMA-II
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.