Predictors of Academic Success among College Students with Attention Disorders

By Kaminski, Patricia L.; Turnock, Patrick M. et al. | Journal of College Counseling, Spring 2006 | Go to article overview

Predictors of Academic Success among College Students with Attention Disorders


Kaminski, Patricia L., Turnock, Patrick M., Rosen, Lee A., Laster, Stephanie A., Journal of College Counseling


Among 68 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, academic success was positively correlated with time management skills and freedom from financial stress. As a group, students with higher grade point averages reported fewer coping resources than did academically lower achieving students. Less academically successful students likely spend more time using coping mechanisms and therefore may have less time to study. Implications for professional practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with academic success among a sample of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Of particular interest were students' resources for coping with stress and their descriptions of strategies used to manage their ADHD symptoms. First, however, we review the literature on ADHD and examine the obstacles faced by students with ADHD.

It was once widely believed that ADHD was common only in childhood, with the symptoms gradually disappearing through adolescence. Although the prevalence of ADHD symptoms does decline with age among clinic-referred samples (Biederman et al., 1996; Cantwell, 1996), longitudinal studies indicate a continuance of the disorder beyond childhood for a significant proportion of those affected (Barkley, Fischer, Edelbrock, & Smallish, 1991; Cadoret & Stewart, 1991; Weiss & Hechtman, 1993). In fact, 30% to 80% of ADHD children still meet the full diagnostic criteria for the disorder in adolescence (Biederman, 1991; Klein & Mannuzza, 1991). Investigations of college students also provide evidence of continuing ADHD symptoms beyond childhood (Ramirez et al., 1997; Turnock, Rosen, & Kaminski, 1998).

The attention-related demands of academic environments that cause difficulty for children with ADHD can also be a challenge for ADHD adults (e.g., Barkley, Murphy, & Kwasnik, 1996; Biederman et al., 1993; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & LaPadula, 1993; Turnock et al., 1998). Furthermore, recent discussions of the deficits in executive functions seen in ADHD (e.g., goal setting, organizing, time management) suggest that a college environment, which demands such skills, may pose new challenges for ADHD adults, even those who fared well in high school (Wolf, 2001).

Throughout their schooling, and independent of differences in IQ, ADHD individuals tend to have more academic problems than other students (Hectman, 1991; Lambert, 1988). Problems include lower grades, more failed or repeated grades, and fewer years of education completed (Hechtman, Weiss, & Perlman, 1984; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & Hynes, 1997; Slomkowski, Klein, & Mannuzza, 1995; Wilson & Marcotte, 1996). In fact, Mannuzza et al. (1993) found that approximately 25% of ADHD participants (vs. 2% of controls) never completed high school.

Although little is known about the prevalence or effect of ADHD in the university setting, clinicians suggest a positive educational outcome for a subset of ADHD college students (Hallowell & Ratey, 1994; Nadeau, 1994; Quinn, 1993). For example, in separate longitudinal studies, Mannuzza et al. (1997; 1993) found that 12% and 15% of their ADHD samples, respectively, had completed a bachelor's degree.

Some investigators have hypothesized that academically successful ADHD college students are better able to cope with their symptoms than are their academically lower achieving peers (Faigel, 1995; Hallowell & Ratey, 1994; Kaplan & Schachter, 1991; Nadeau, 1994; Quinn, 1993). Although the use of symptom-specific coping strategies among ADHD students has not received empirical support (Turnock et al., 1998), it may be that academically successful ADHD students rely on a number of coping resources (i.e., factors that are present and available even before stressors occur that lessen the costs of dealing with stressors; Curlette, Aycock, Matheny, Puch, & Taylor, 1990) to prevent or endure stresses that overwhelm less-resilient ADHD individuals (Wheaton, 1983). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Predictors of Academic Success among College Students with Attention Disorders
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.