The Last Years of Yugoslavia

By Emadi, Hafizullah | Contemporary Review, November 1993 | Go to article overview

The Last Years of Yugoslavia


Emadi, Hafizullah, Contemporary Review


The past three years have witnessed unprecedented upheavals and rebellions by millions of people in East European countries. Rigid social and political structures disintegrated and tyrant after tyrant fell from the domain of absolute power when the rebellious masses took matters into their own hands. People rebelled against their system believing that what they were fighting against was socialism. They believed that only a Western-style market economy would deliver them from years of oppression and deprivation. The Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu was executed, the Berlin Wall was torn asunder, and East Germany's Erich Honecker fled to Moscow. Bulgarians, Hungarians, Czechoslovakians, and Albanians fought for a Western-style political and economic system. In Yugoslavia, which was already integrated into the Western economies, the peoples' struggle took a different form - the struggle for national liberation.

To understand the failure of the Yugoslav regime and the resurgence of nationalism it will be argued that the ruling class in Yugoslav politics failed to exert its dominance in society. The first crisis was manifested in the construction of Yugoslav-style socialism based on the concept of self-management development in 1950-1980, which led to uneven economic development and growing foreign debt. The second crisis was reflected in Yugoslavia's circumventionist approach to the question of internationality which gave birth to nationalistic sentiments during Tito's rule and led to ethnic unrest in the post-Tito era and then to the disintegration of Yugoslavia. The ruling class failed to transform itself from a position of domination to that of hegemony. It did not seek the active consent and support of Yugoslavia's multi-nationality but rather relied on coercive force in maintaining its domination. The ruling class organized a powerful secret police apparatus (UDBA) and used it to suppress opposition. To become hegemonic, the ruling class (or faction) must prevail in society in terms of its economic, political, intellectual, and moral leadership through the articulation of a national popular outlook based on the active consent of its subjects.

Building and maintaining hegemony ~involves taking systematic account of popular interests and demands, shifting position and making compromises on secondary issues to maintain support and alliances in an inherently unstable and fragile system of political relations ... and organizing this support for the attainment of national goals which serve the fundamental long-term interests of the dominant group'.(1) Hegemony also requires an accumulation strategy based on ~a specific economic growth model complete with its various extra-economic preconditions and outlines the general strategy appropriate to its realization. To be successful such a model must unify the different moments in the circuit of capital ... under the hegemony of one faction (whose composition will vary inter alia with the stage of the capitalist development)'.(2) The crisis of a modern state occurs when the ruling class lacks active social support. ~If the ruling class lost its consensus, i.e. is no longer leading but only dominant, exercising coercive force alone, this means precisely that the great masses have become detached from their traditional ideologies and no longer believe what they used to believe previously, etc. The crisis consists precisely in the fact that the old is dying and the new cannot be born: in this interregnum a great variety of morbid symptoms appear'.(3) Policies and practices of external social formation (multinational and transnational corporations) as an external factor also can precipitate the crisis of a modern state.

Yugoslavia emerged as a kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in December 1918 under the leadership of the Serbian King Alexander Karadjordjevic. It united the former Austro-Hungarian territories of Croatia, Slovenia, Dalmatia, Vojvodina, and Bosnia-Hercegovina as well as the independent kingdoms of Montenegro and Serbia. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Last Years of Yugoslavia
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.