A Mirror of Ages Past: The Publication of Music in Domestic Periodicals
Miller, Bonny H., Notes
Thousands of songs and piano pieces have been published in the pages of nonspecialized household magazines issued throughout Europe and the Americas, yet an overall history is lacking for this large repertory of music published in periodicals not devoted to music or music journalism.(1) The publication of complete compositions in music journals, such as Etude Magazine, is familiar to many musicians. While less familiar, serial publications consisting entirely of music constitute another example of music publishing in a periodical format.(2) Music journalism--that is, writing about music, including reviews of concerts, music reviews, regular music columns, reports, essays, and biographical information on composers and performers--is common in newspapers and magazines of the popular press. Less well known, however, is the tradition of music publication in household periodicals as familiar to us as the Atlantic Monthly (music in 1876 and 1877), Harper's Monthly Magazine (songs in 1883 and 1884), the Ladies' Home Journal (about two hundred fifty pieces from 1893 to 1925), Vogue Magazine ("Saint's Song," from Gian Carlo Menotti's The Saint of Bleecker Street in 1954) and Newsweek (a Christmas carol commissioned from Walt and Kathleen Kelly in 1955), to cite only a few examples. Although music was sometimes incorporated as examples in reviews or articles about music, this study focuses on music that was included in household periodicals simply as a feature for readers to perform and enjoy at home.
The breadth and age of this little-known publishing tradition is perhaps surprising.(3) Journals devoted to music and music study date from the early eighteenth century, but music compositions have been published in periodicals of general interest from as early as 1678, actually predating the earliest music periodicals by several decades. The spectrum of nonspecialized periodicals that included music is diverse, ranging from literary journals and general cultural periodicals, to weekly newspapers and newspaper supplements, as well as family miscellanies meant to entertain and inform the household. Other genres of periodicals that featured music were magazines for children, religious periodicals, political publications, gift-book annuals, and so-called "little magazines" (i.e., magazines of avant-garde poetry, fiction, and criticism). Of special interest to musicians are those compositions published in the periodicals of literary or artistic movements, such as German romanticism, art nouveau, and expressionism. Although the importance and value of contemporaneous music journalism published in belletristic reviews, household magazines, and newspapers is fully recognized, little notice has been given to the compositions themselves, although published in many of the same periodicals. Scant value has been placed on this music, presumably because the repertory was for the fireside rather than for the concert hall, the forms being modest and the styles frequently popular. Many pieces, however, are unique to the magazines, and some were even composed by commission.(4) The composers include men and women whose work we regard as serious, or "classical" music, as well as popular song writers and amateurs. This music presents a unique mirror of changing musical tastes during the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries, yet this rich and broad publishing tradition has been largely forgotten. While there is some secondary literature describing music in specific periodicals or within a narrow genre, an overview of this once-common method of music publishing is needed.(5) After a historical sketch of this publishing phenomenon, this study will identify the major categories of general periodicals publishing music, thereby providing a historical context for more detailed examination of specific journals. Music historians and librarians need to be aware that this tradition of music is to be found not in music libraries but rather in periodicals and microfilms in general collections.(6) Tools to assist librarians and historians as they search for music in nonspecialized periodicals in general collections will be identified in footnotes. The brief descriptions of periodicals and the music they contained are not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to stimulate researchers to investigate these and similar nonspecialized periodicals that might contain music corresponding to their own research interests.(7)
The idea of a magazine--a volume with a variety of material published at some regular interval, as long as a year, or as short as two days--began in seventeenth-century France. Learned scientific and historical material filled the Journal des Scavans (Paris: 1665--1797; Journal des Savants, Paris: 1816--present), but a more literary and entertaining style characterized the Mercure Galant, an elegant journal of French court life founded during the reign of the Sun King and later called the Mercure de France (Paris: 1672--1965). Music first appeared in the Mercure Galant in 1678. Consisting of chansons, duets, drinking songs, and airs en recitatives, the sudden profusion of music in the 1678 Mercure suggests that the idea may have been imitated from some earlier, unidentified model. For more than two centuries, the Mercure de France contained music on an occasional basis, issuing hundreds of songs. A French Protestant refugee, Pierre Anthony Motteaux, took the idea of a periodical with news and amusement to London, where, in 1692, he established the first English magazine, the Gentleman's Journal (London: 1692--1694), which included songs by the most famous English composers of the day--Henry Purcell, John Blow, Samuel Akeroyd, Robert King, and others.(8) More than eighty songs were published in the Gentleman's Journal, demonstrating a strong English tradition for music in aristocratic homes that was still documented one hundred years later in novels of upper class British life.(9)
These two magazines were the models for scores of aristocratic literary magazines in England and France during the eighteenth century. In France, periodicals with the royal license to publish issued elegantly engraved chansons, vaudevilles, ariettes, drinking songs, duets, recitatives, and contradances. Few challengers could rival the Mercure de France, but, prior to the Revolution, music by composers such as Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, Niccolo Piccinni, and Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset appeared in the Journal Encyclopadique (Liege: 1756--1793), Journal de Paris (Paris: 1777--1840), and the Courier Lyrique et Amusant (Paris: 1785--1788).
The list of British journals with music includes the greatest English magazines of the eighteenth century: the Gentleman's Magazine (London: 1731--1907), London Magazine (London: 1732--1793), Universal Magazine (London: 1747--1815), Town and Country Magazine (London: 1769--1796), and Walker's Hibernian Magazine (Dublin: 1771--1811).(10) These prominent British magazines featured popular airs from the theaters and pleasure gardens by composers such as Thomas Arne, George Frideric Handel, James Oswald, Robert Hudson, Joseph Jackson, Samuel Howard, and Charles Avison. By the 1750s, instrumental pieces also occasionally appeared. These works were almost always "country" dances or contradances, such as quadrilles, sometimes including instructions or diagrams for the dance. Initially, flute and violin were the most popular choices for instrumental dances, but keyboard solos appeared by the 1760s and grew more common during the 1780s and 90s as the piano became established as a favorite household instrument.
Very soon, ladies' magazines sprang up in imitation of the men's journals, but they were financially less successful, and only at the end of the eighteenth century did women's magazines with music thrive, such as the Lady's Magazine (London: 1770--1837), Ladies' Monthly Museum (London: 1798--1832), and La Belle Assemblee (London: 1806--1832).(11) These journals presented a virtual mirror of the "top forty" songs of their day, reflecting each popular new favorite from the London stage. Frequently the name of the singer who performed the song was prominently mentioned, rather than the composer. Besides hits from the theaters, airs from Handel's oratorios were perennial favorites, along with dances, marches, and variations for piano or harp solo. Scotch tunes and traditional Irish melodies came into vogue in the early nineteenth century, followed by arias from the Italian operas of Vincenzo Bellini, Gioacchino Rossini, and Gaetano Donizetti, often set with new English words.
A different attitude prevailed in the periodicals of the German romantics of Goethe's era. Rather than news and gossip, their journals were devoted to essays, poetry, and varied literary forms. Musical settings of poetry as choruses, recitatives, and, above all, lieder, occur by the hundreds. Among the composers included most frequently were Carl Friedrich Zelter, Johann Friedrich Reichardt and his wife Juliane Benda Reichardt, Georg Abraham Schneider, Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, Wilhelm Schneider, Ernst Wilhelm Wolf and his wife Caroline Benda Wolf, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald von Gluck. Lieder by Ludwig van Beethoven, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Louis Spohr, and Franz Schubert first appeared early in the nineteenth century. As in most European journals of this era, music was often presented on special foldout sheets, either elegantly engraved or in rough typeset. The horrendous errors in notes, rhythmic alignment, and text placement that occurred commonly in magazine music indicate that the scores were probably prepared by the printer who set the magazine, rather than by a regular music publisher. Once begun, the trend of including music in German literary journals was commonplace for fifty years, long after music had disappeared from English gentlemen's magazines. A craze for endowing annuals, calendars, and even tiny almanacs with a supplement of foldout music began in France in 1765 with the Almanach des muses (Paris: 1765--1833), and was copied in Germany beginning with the Gottingen Musenalmanach (Gottingen: 1770--1804), and then in hundreds of other literary pocketbooks and annuals.(12)
Almanacs and gift-books were a very lucrative avenue of the book business in Europe and the United States through the mid-nineteenth century.(13) The first song in an American periodical was issued in Bickerstaff's Boston Almanack (Boston: 1768--1791), which contained "The Liberty Song" in its 1769 and 1770 editions.(14) The first colonial magazine to contain music was the Royal American Magazine, or Universal Repository of Instruction and Amusement (Boston: 1774--1775), which had an anonymous song, "The Hilltops. A New Hunting Song," in April, 1774. The importance of this publishing tradition for American music is noted by Charles Hamm, who writes, "The first secular songs published in America appeared as insertions in journals."(15) A handful of early nineteenth-century American journals and newspapers contained an occasional song, including the Pennsylvania Magazine (Philadelphia: 1775--1776), Boston Magazine (Boston: 1783--1786), Universal Asylum and Columbian Magazine (Philadelphia: 1786--1792), Massachusetts Magazine (Boston: 1789--1796), Gentlemen and Ladies' Town and Country Magazine (Boston: 1789--1790), Massachusetts Spy (Boston, then Worcester: 1770--1820), and New York Magazine or Literary Repository (New York: 1790--1797).(16)
After 1800, more and more examples of music can be found in the weekly cultural newspapers, monthly household magazines, and ladies' magazines from New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, and Richmond. The separation by genre is somewhat misleading, because the contents were basically the same for all of these periodicals. Except for journals devoted to scientific, historical, or political topics, most nineteenth-century magazines for the home consisted of short stoires, serialized novels, poetry, reviews, and letters. Ladies' magazines simply contained additional material such as tinted fashion engravings, handiwork patterns, and advice on household chores. Music was used as a feature--along with the latest in fashion plates, novels, and needlework patterns--among competitive nineteenth-century magazines for the home. Far from being a mere backwater, some ladies' magazines were extremely successful. Godey's Lady's Book (Philadelphia: 1830--1898) had the largest sales of any magazine published up to the Civil War, and the Ladies' Home Journal (Philadelphia: 1883--present) in 1903 was the first American magazine to reach more than a million subscribers.(17) These household periodicals contained music from sources both popular and classical. Inclusion of the latest popular songs may have been an element of fashion, but the reprinting in multiple periodicals of favorites such as George J. Webb's "The Last Rose of Summer" or the "Coronation Waltz," composed by Johann Strauss for the succession of Queen Victoria, had little to do with fashion. Not only did magazines present the latest popular styles, but they also cultivated and supplied a standard repertory of music especially for entertainment in the home.
The selections published in magazines in the United States during the nineteenth century reflect the evolution of taste in popular music with striking clarity. Beginning with songs from the British ballad operas and pleasure gardens until as late as 1910, almost each popular new success is echoed in the pages of periodicals. Step by step, we can follow the early American songwriters born in England, the enormous popularity of Thomas Moore and Sir John Stevenson's Irish Melodies, the success of Italian opera in English translations, the works of the first American-born songwriters (e.g., Francis Hopkinson, Oliver Shaw, Charles Gilfert, and John Hill Hewitt), the music of ensembles such as the Hutchinson family, the favorite songs of English composers such as John Braham, Henry Bishop, and Henry Russell, the popularity of German lieder with English words, the songs of the Civil War, and the popular style of songs up to the rise of Tin Pan Alley. Hymns and devotional music, sometimes written in the shape-note system, were often included in periodicals. Many mid-nineteenth-century magazines, including children's magazines, published settings by Webb, Lowell Mason, and George F. Root. In the instrumental realm, the standard fare of the nineteenth-century concert stage was represented by variations, operatic transcriptions, and dances or fantasies exhibiting national characteristics of melody, harmony, or rhythm. Music from stage works--from ballad operas to Reginald de Koven's operettas--was often present. Perhaps the only great popular trend not seen in American magazines was the rise of minstrel and "coon" songs, presumably because such music would have been considered not suitably genteel for the home. Regtime songs and piano solos were infrequent, but do occur. There is no mirror of an age like its magazines, and this repertory presents an invaluable, but hitherto unexplored guide to American popular music of the nineteenth century.
Domestic journals and women's magazines throughout Europe, the United States, Canada, and South America were strikingly similar during the nineteenth century. Literature, poetry, and engraved illustrations constituted the bulk of the contents, and music was a frequent and natural addition. A musical instrument in the home was a measure of social standing, and performance on it a mark of accomplishment. The periodicals show that musical entertainment at home included songs and duets with piano, guitar, or harp accompaniment; two- to four-voice choral settings; and short instrumental solos for keyboard, flute, or violin. After 1850, an abundance of dance music was added to the literary contents of household monthlies. Polkas, mazurkas, quicksteps, galops, marches, and, above all, waltzes, appear by the hundreds before the turn of the century. The number and variety of dances, as well as the presence of diagrams and instructions, suggest that dancing in the home was a popular pastime. With regular phrase lengths and rudimentary harmonies, these dances lack the asymmetry, rubato, melodic finesse, and harmonic complexity of the stylized waltzes and mazurkas by composers such as Chopin or Tchaikovsky, but, at their best, they feature fresh, natural melodies and infectious rhythmic spirit. Songs and dances were published from Caracas to Montreal, and from Chicago to Berlin. Although much of the music was consistent in style, sometimes the spirit of nationalism was very evident, as in the native habaneras published in Cuban magazines.(18) Periodicals from capitals as remote as Mexico City, Bogota, and Rio de Janeiro all contained "contradanzas" that were flavored with distinctive Latin rhythms and melodies, alongside the latest European waltzes and operetta tunes.
Despite the presence of names like Beethoven, Rossini, and Mozart, only a minority of music in the journals was by famous masters. Many of the compositions came from now forgotten composers of local renown or from eager amateurs. There were dozens of works by women in this repertory, ranging from the most celebrated artists of the century, such as Fannie Mendelssohn Hensel and Clara Wieck Schumann, to completely unknown names.(19) Many of the comositions in magazines may be the only extant works of otherwise unknown composers.
The majority of magazine music was written in the popular style of the day, usually no longer than two pages. Strophic and da capo forms were favored in periodicals, because these forms combined maximum poetic and musical length with minimal page length. Frequently it was the poem that was more important to the journal, the music often being indexed as poetry in tables of contents. There was little stylistic difference between compositions published in household magazines and those issued in regular music journals, although selections in household journals avoided extremes of length and technical difficulty. In some cases, music for household magazines was simply stolen from music journals or pirated from published editions. Some music, however, was clearly written for or commissioned by nonmusic periodicals. In other cases a music publisher supplied examples to a magazine on a regular basis--amounting to a free sample of his wares for the reader--or a music editor chose selections. Occasionally one magazine borrowed music from another, or a single piece was reprinted within the same journal. Obtaining music was often a casual affair at best, and some magazines abandoned the idea after only one or two pieces had appeared.
Children's periodicals, along with women's magazines, were another obvious vehicle for songs and piano music. The earliest children's magazines with music appeared in the late eighteenth century in Germany and England. Their numbers increased steadily throughout Europe, Canada, and the United States during the nineteenth century.(20) Religious periodicals, such as Sunday School magazines, were another facet of the ever-widening field of children's literature. Often the music was meant to be played for children rather than by children, as in the accompaniments for children's songs or plays. Several pleasant exceptions appeared in St. Nicholas Magazine (New York and London: 1873--1943), probably the most famous and highly regarded children's magazine of all time. St. Nicholas included many songs for children to sing, and contained some piano compositions as well, aimed at the advanced beginner or the early intermediate level.
Church magazines, not surprisingly, comprised another genre that often included music. Denominations in many countries published sober household magazines for their members, with conservative devotional settings for the home. A spectrum of examples includes: Halcyon Luminary and Theological Repository (New York: 1812--1813), Religious Informer (Enfield, New York: 1819--1825), Orb (London: 1863--1868), Shaker or Manifesto (East Canterbury, New Hampshire: 1871--1899), New and Old for Seedtime and Harvest (London: 1873--1896), Newbery House Magazine (London: 1889--1894), Searchlight (Dayton, Ohio: 1895--1905), and Der Aar (Regensburg and Rome: 1910--1913).
In addition to music added to periodicals for educational intentions, for home entertainment, or for religious devotions, songs in some journals were frankly political in nature, including abolitionist, temperance, and women's suffrage songs. A publication of the Anti-Slavery office, the Monthly Offering (Boston: 1840--1842) contained numerous two- and three-part abolition songs; many were familiar tunes with newly added words, with titles such as "Slavery Must Pass Away," "Rise, Sons of Africa," and "Progress of the Cause." Temperance songs turned up occasionally in domestic magazines during the nineteenth century, such as the "Song of the C. W. A [i.e., Cold Water Army]," in the Lowell Offering (Lowell, Mass.: 1840--1845), an unusual literary magazine whose subtitle specified that it was "written exclusively by females actively employed in the [textile] mills." Music also was included in journals devoted to the temperance movement, such as the Crystal Fount (Baltimore: 1847--1848). An example of a song from the women's suffrage movement is "Rouse ye, Women," by "Nemo," published in the Women's Franchise: A Record of the Women's Suffrage Movement (London: 1907--1911). Other examples of music used for political aims can be found in Germany. Songs were included in periodicals of the German worker's movement, for example, in Der Wahre Jacob (Hamburg: 1884--1933), while folk music and chorales appeared in periodicals spreading Hitler's propaganda of the German Volk, such as Buch und Volk (Leipzig: 1924--present).
Monthly household magazines containing music numbered in the hundreds during the nineteenth century. Although these journals were aimed at a general middle-class audience, not all of them catered to popular taste. Both the Atlantic Monthly (Boston: 1857--present), in 1876 and 1877, and Harper's New Monthly Magazine (New York: 1850--present), in 1883 and 1884, made efforts to cultivate the contemporary American art song. Neither magazine achieved lasting success in this endeavor, but they did publish songs by John Knowles Paine, Julius Eichberg, Dudley Buck, Francis Boott, George L. Osgood, Joseph Mosenthal, and William Wallace Gilchrist. Similarly, many aspiring domestic journals in Europe gathered musical examples from the Baroque era to the best composers of the day.(21)
A familiar American magazine that made surprising contributions to the musical repertory is the Ladies' Home Journal. For two decades the Ladies' Home Journal sponsored contests for the best musical work by an amateur and then published these compositions. The famous pianist Josef Hofmann (1876--1957) was a friend of Edward Bok, the editor, and of the Curtis family, who published the magazine. Hofmann served as musical editor from 1907 until 1919, writing articles with advice for students of music and choosing compositions for publication in the magazine.(22) The Curtis family founded the Curtis Institute of Music in 1924, and Hofmann became its president in 1926. No doubt through Hofmann's influence, the Ladies' Home Journal commissioned works from many talented composers of the day, including Richard Strauss, John Philip Sousa, Ignace Paderewski, Moritz Moszkowski, Edvard Grieg, and Cecile Chaminade. In England, several counterparts of the Ladies' Home Journal contained good new music commissioned from prominent performers and pedagogues. Both the Young Ladies' Journal (London: 1864--1920) and the Girl's Own Paper (London: 1880--1950) contained dozens of songs and piano pieces composed just for these magazines by leading British musicians.
Weekly newspapers or weekly supplements to daily newspapers presented another popular method of music publication at the turn of the century, in American cities as well as in Europe. In New York, for instance, more than 650 pieces of music were published between 1895 and 1911 in William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal.(23) Music was common in weekly or biweekly cultural papers such as the Gil Blas illustre (Paris: 1891--1903), La Revue illustree (Paris: 1885--1912), and Le Figaro illustre (Paris: 1883--1911). Some other weekly papers with music were Le Samedi (Montreal: 1889--1940), Le Monde illustre (Montreal: 1884--1907), and Les Annales politiques et litteraires (Paris: 1883--1939). The musical works in these papers ranged from the melodies of popular cabaret songs to art songs of contemporary composers, alongside works of the Classical and Baroque masters.
By the end of the nineteenth century, another kind of periodical also occasionally featured music--the arts journal, which combined the newest in design and illustration with the most modern fiction, poetry, and criticism. The idea was initiated by the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain in the 1880s and 90s, and it was taken up in America in so-called "little magazines," in France in symbolist and art nouveau journals, and in Germany by periodicals of the Jugendstil and the expressionist movements. These journals aimed at a union of art, literature, and music, as well as consummate craftsmanship in typesetting, printing, and binding. The 1890s vogue for combining literature with artistic decoration is evident in lavish symbolist periodicals such as L'Image (Paris: 1896--1897) and La Plume (Paris: 1889--1914). In their musical interpolations, the names of the designers, artists, and engravers often received recognition equal to that given to the composer of the music and to the author of the text. In the October, 1895 issue of the Mercure de France, for instance, the music to a piano solo by Gabriel Fabre is preceded by a title page, a page with a sketch of a pond with water lilies by L. Welden Hawkins, and lines from a poem by Henri de Regnier.
Several German art periodicals mirrored the aestheticism of the British and French journals of the 1890s. Pan (Berlin: 1895--1900) and Jugend (Munich: 1896--1940) were among the first journals of the German Jugendstil, or art nouveau movement. They aimed for an integration of literature, art, workmanship, and music. The synthesis between music and artistic layout culminated in the compositions published in 1898 and 1901 in Ver Sacrum (Vienna: 1898--1903), the periodical of the Vienna Secession movement. Each musical work in the journal appeared in a unique artistic setting, designed by a prominent Secession artist, and varying from naturalistic human figures to abstract geometric designs and rippling art nouveau curves. This blending of the arts may have been prompted by an article in the influential English art magazine, The Studio, in November, 1898, that called for a new approach to music layout, going beyond a decorative title page or mere accompanying illustration:
It is the music itself--the page on which it is scored--that should be decorated, although not perhaps in the regular preconceived manner adopted in book illustration. The Middle Ages ... found in their antiphonaries a means of illustrating music by a special employment of ornamentation.(24) Few followed the Ver Sacrum artists in searching for an integration between music and its graphic appearance. With its emphasis on design, Ver Sacrum was probably unique among the many nineteenth- and early twentieth-century periodicals that included music.(25)
Literary magazines were more likely than art journals to include music, especially settings of poets featured in the journal. From 1890 to the 1930s, literary reviews and "little magazines" often included examples of music as well as of art in their contents. Several features characterize little magazines: they are directed at a small literary audience, they contain new or experimental literature and criticism, and they are published without expectation of profit. The little magazines of the 1890s combined contemporary writing with the newest in printing and book design. Although primarily literary in orientation, illustration or decoration sometimes was added to enhance these periodicals, and music was an occasional complement. Outstanding among little magazines that included music were the British Quarto (London: 1896--1898), Dome (London: 1897--1900), and the American Chap-book (Chicago: 1894--1898). This type of literary periodical was reflected both in France and in Germany. Blatter fur die Kunst (Berlin: 1892--1919), published by Stefan George's circle as a vehicle for their own poetry and essays, in its early years published lieder by Karl Hallwachs, Kurt Peters, and Clemens Franckenstein. An American parallel to this George-journal was Poet-Lore (Philadelphia, Boston: 1889--present), a periodical initially devoted to Shakespeare and Browning. Poet-Lore included musical settings between 1889 and 1892 by editor Helen Clarke and by her father, Hugh Archibald Clarke.
A new generation of literary periodicals appeared in Germany and France in 1910 and thereafter. They combined the radical new styles of modern art--expressionism, cubism, dadaism, and surrealism--with avant-garde poetry, prose, and music. Like the Jugendstil journals, these periodicals aimed at a synthesis of literature, design, and illustration, but the tone was no longer gentle and cultured, but often explosive, political, and revolutionary. In Germany, atonal works by Arnold Schoenberg and his students Alban Berg and Anton Webern appeared in several journals.(26) Often the music was presented in a facsimile of the composer's autograph. Compositions for experimental instruments such as the quarter-tone harmonium and quarter-tone piano appeared in the 1920s in Der Sturm (Berlin: 1910--1932), one of the leading journals of German expressionism. These pieces were obviously no longer intended for amateur performance in the home, but were chosen rather as vivid examples of the vanguard style in music.
The same trend is clear in French literary journals after 1910. Avantgarde settings or excerpts appear between 1910 and 1930 in many Parisian reviews, along with the latest criticism, art, and verse. Although well documented, these journals are very rare and difficult to locate.(27) One example, Montjoie! (Paris: 1913--1914) contained examples from works by Albert Roussel, Jean Poueigh, Alfredo Casella, Maximilian Steinberg, Erik Satie, Florent Schmitt, and Igor Stravinsky. Another magazine, Sic (Paris: 1916--1919), published excerpts of music by Stravinsky, Francesco Balilla Pratella, and Germaine Albert-Birot.
World War I marked the end of music in most periodicals, but even before the war, the publication of music in periodicals was in decline, as photography became the most popular feature in magazines, and as radio and the phonograph replaced music-making at home as entertainment. Music continued to appear occasionally only in isolated arts reviews, in a few women's journals, and in some children's magazines.
A handful of little magazines in Europe and America continued to include art and music during the 1920s and 30s. The British tradition continued with finely-wrought periodicals such as Form (London: 1916--1917 and 1921--1922), The Monthly Chapbook (London: 1919--1925), the London Aphrodite (London: 1928--1929), the Modern Scot (Edinburgh: 1930--1936), and Scythe, or Townsman (London: 1938--1945). Music of the vanguard was prominent in the Transatlantic Review (Paris: 1924) and in transition (the Hague, then Paris: 1927--1938, 1948--1950), both the products of expatriates such as James Joyce and Gertrude Stein. Transatlantic Review included music by George Antheil, Satie, and Ezra Pound, while transition included excerpts from works by Edgard Varese, Aaron Copland, and Chester K. MacKee, as well a complete Scherzo for solo piano by Henry Cowell. Some American literary magazines continued to include isolated pieces: Golden Book Magazine (New York: 1925--1935) had songs by Johannes Brahms, Anton Rubinstein, and A. P. Graves; New Directions in Prose and Poetry (New York: 1936--1970) included music by Pound; and another little magazine, Five Arts (Hanover, New Hampshire: 1930), issued a piano solo by H. S. Casler.
Since World War II, music has virtually disappeared from all except journals devoted to music. Children's magazines may be the only nonmusical genre that continues to publish music regularly for its audience. One of the last great examples of this publishing tradition can be found in Life Magazine (New York, Chicago: 1883--present) on 29 June 1963, when Aaron Copland's piano solo "Down a Country Lane" appeared, commissioned by Life as part of an article on the enduring popularity of the piano as a household instrument.
Despite its present obscurity, the tradition of magazine music was an enduring phenomenon for almost 300 years, until eclipsed by new technologies in home entertainment and musical media. Who can say who loved music more: our twentieth-century audiophiles--armed with the latest in audio systems and compact discs--or the generations who bought magazines, sang or played the month's music, and clipped out the pieces that they enjoyed to be stored in the piano bench and replayed again and again. The fundamental difference is the change from active to passive participation in music. In this case, the older approach surely is the more sophisticated and profound musical experience. The abundant presence of music to be performed in the home by nonspecialists is an elegant testament to the love of music and the high level of musical literacy in past generations compared to the present.
"Magazine music" presents a rich field for exploration. The pages of yesterday's magazines convey to us an extraordinary feeling for the texture of life in past eras. Our understanding of the complex relationship and subsequent schism between "art" and "popular" music cannot help but be deepened through study of this repertory, with resulting insights for historians and performers of both areas. This repertory reveals many rare and some unique works by master composers, while simultaneously providing hundreds of examples of the norm, or the typical musical style of the day, against which we measure masterworks. Because of its musical diversity, historical merit, and cultural significance, the tradition of music publication in nonspecialized periodicals is a resource too important to ignore and too valuable to forget.
(1.)This study focuses on periodicals not devoted to music or music journalism. Excluded from this study are music periodicals, such as those found in 19th Century American Music Periodicals on Microfilm (Guilford, Conn.: Opus Publications), or those indexed as part of the Repertoire international de la presse musicale (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International). The general guideline that has emerged in this study for the determination of nonspecialized periodicals is the exclusion of any periodical when the first item in the title or subtitle refers to music (e.g., music(al), lyre, orpheus, cecilia, quaver, organ, piano, song(ster), choral, minstrel, harmony, etc.), indicating that the periodical is devoted primarily to music, music journalism, or the music trade, and thus falls beyond the scope of this research. If the title or subtitle refers to music secondarily (e.g., The Lady's Magazine and Musical Repository), the periodical is included unless the majority of contents are devoted to music. Similarly, literary, art, and theater journals are included unless the majority of contents are devoted to music. Newspapers and monthly magazines of a general nature that issued periodic music supplements are included in the study. In questionable cases, the periodical is included in this study when the majority of contents are general in nature, even if the periodical is also included in listings of music periodicals, such as Imogen Fellinger's article "Periodicals," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), Fellinger, Verzeichnis der Musikzeitschriften des 19. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg: Bosse, 1968), or William J. Weichlein, A Checklist of American Music Periodicals, 1850--1900, Detroit Studies in Music Bibliography, 16 (Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1970).
(2.)Editions of printed music issued as serials are, by definition, devoted to music, and thus are excluded from this study. Such serial publications would include the Periodical Overtures published in the 1760s by Robert Bremner, publications of music such as those indexed by Imogen Fellinger in Periodica Musicalia (1789--1830) (Regensburg: Bosse, 1986), and serial publications of music discussed by D. W. Krummel in "Searching and Sorting on the Slippery Slope: Periodical Publication of Victorian Music," Notes 46 (1990): 593--608.
(3.)The sources for this overview are the periodical collections and microfilms at more than forty university libraries and special collections in the United States and Canada, as well as citations in union lists and other secondary sources. Since 1983, the author has compiled indices of nonspecialized periodicals containing music, published in the United States, Canada, England, France, Spain, Germany/Austria/Switzerland, Scandinavia, and Latin America. Of approximately 800 titles compiled so far, about 300 are American, 150 British, 200 German, 80 French, and 60 Spanish. Because of the breadth of the tradition, coupled with the rare and ephemeral nature of old periodicals, such a compilation is never complete; as Krummel observes, "...folly and madness lie in the search for total inclusiveness" (Krummel, 596).
(4.)See, for example, Nancy Reich's article, "Clara Schumann's Romance Discovered in an 1891 London Weekly," Keyboard Classics 9 (September/October 1989): 18--22.
(5.)The intent of this overview is to provide a general introduction as well as a cultural and historical context in which to place more detailed studies of specific periodicals or genres of periodicals. Discussions of music within a specific periodial include Josepha Kennedy, "Index to Songs Published in The London Magazine (1732--1783)," Music Review 46 (1985): 83--92; Gordon Myers, "Music in the Massachusetts Magazine," Music Journal 28 (1970): 26--27 and 42--43; Julia Koza, "Music and Reference to Music in Godey's Lady's Book, 1830--1877," 4 vols. (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1988); Koz? "Music and the Feminine Sphere: Images of Women as Musicians in Godey's Lady's Book, 1830--1877: Musical Quarterly 75 (1991): 103--29; and John Graziano, "Music in William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal," Notes 48 (1991): 383--424. Many articles briefly mention examples of music published in nonspecialized periodicals in the course of a related topic such as musicd periodicals or music journalism in newspapers and magazines of the popular press.
General information on American journals that published music is found in Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines, 5 vols. (New York: Appleton; Cambridge: Harvard University, 1930--1968). Music is included in the description of some periodicals in the National Union Catalog: pre-1956 Imprints. A Cumulative Author List Representing Library of Congress Printed Cards and Titles Reported by Other American Libraries, 754 vols. (London: Mansell, 1968--1981); and in Jayne K. Kribbs, An Annotated Bibliography of American Literary Periodicals, 1741--1850, Reference Guides in Literature (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1977). Judity Tick discusses American women's magazines in American Woen Composers before 1870, Studies in Musicology, no. 57 (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983). Additional information is available in John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman, The Magazine in America 1741--1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991); Lyon N. Richardson, A History of Early American Magazines (New York: Thomas Nelson, 1931); James Playsted Wood, Magazines in the United States, 3rd ed. (New York: Ronald Press, 1970); and Paul Fatout, "Threnodies of the Ladies' Books," Musical Quarterly 31 (1945): 464--78.
British journals that contained music are discussed by Frank Kidson, "English Magazines Containing Music before the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century," Musical Antiquary 3 (1911--12): 99--102; and by W. J. Lawrence, "Eighteenth-Century Magazine Music," ibid., 18--39. Otto Erich Deutsch mentions music by prominent composers in selected eighteenth- and nineteenth-century periodicals in "Erstdrucke der Musik in periodischer Literatur," Die Musikforschung 16 (1963): 51--52. Music from several nonspecialized periodicals is included in the British Museum's Hand-List of Music Published in Some British and Foreign Periodicals between 1787 and 1848 now in the British Museum (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1962).
An index of musical works found in early German romantic journals is found on fiche 28/28 of Index deutschsprachiger Zeitschriften MDCCL--MDCCCXV (1750--1815), Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, ed. Klaus Schmidt (Hildesheim: Olms, 1989). Clemens Hoslinger provides an index to the music and music journalism in one German romantic periodical in his monograph, Musik-Index zur "Wiener Zeitschrift fur Kunst, Literatur, Theater und Mode", 1816--1848, Publikationen der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien, Band 4 (Munich: Musikverlag Emil Katzbichler, 1980). An index of composers who published music in early nineteenth-century German periodicals is included in Alfred Estermann, Die deutschen Literatur-Zeitschriften 1815--1850 Bibliographien Programme Autoren, 10 vols. (Nendeln: KTO Press, 1978): vol. 9, 121--28. A catalog of the contents of some nineteenth-century French periodicals that included music is provided by Frederic Lachevre, Bibliographie sommaire des keepsakes et autres recueils collectifs de la periode romantique, 1823--1848, 2 vols. (1929; reprint [2 vols. in 1], Geneva: Slatkine, 1973); an index of musicians is provided (2: 346--49).
(6.)For details of microfilm or reprint publication of the periodicals cited in this study, see the Appendix. Many of the journals are available in the following microfilm collections:
American Periodicals Series [APS]. Specific reel locations, along with publication history, are found in American Periodicals 1741--1900 An Index to the Microfilm Collections: American Periodicals 18th Century [APS I], American Periodicals 1800--1850 [APS II], American Periodicals 1850--1900, Civil War and Reconstruction [APS III], ed. Jean Hoornstra and Trudy Heath (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1979).
Early British Periodicals [EBP]. See A Guide to the Early British Periodicals Collection on Microfilm with Title, Subject, Editor, and Reel Number Indexes, ed. Jean Hoornstra and Grace Puravs (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1980).
English Literary Periodicals [ELP]. See Accessing English Literary Periodicals: A Guide to the Microfilm Collection with Title, Subject, Editor and Reel Number Indexes, ed. Grace Puravs, Kathy L. Kavanagh, and Vicki Smith (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1981).
History of Women [HOW]. See History of Women: Guide to the Microfilm Collection, [n.n.] (Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Publications, 1983).
Gerritsen Collection of Women's History [GCWH]. See The Gerritsen Collection of Women's History 1543--1945: A Bibliographic Guide to the Microform Collection. Volume Three Gerritsen Serials, ed. Duane Bogenschneider (Sanford, N. C.: Microfilming Corp. of America, 1983).
(7.)One of the stumbling blocks to locating music within magazines is to discover how, or if, music is included in tables of contents, annual indices, cumulative indices, and in secondary listings such as reader's guides. Music compositions are not usually described as "Music," but may be listed as poetry, with some indication that music is present. Music was alternatively listed as an "embellishment," along with the fashion engravings in many nineteenth-century journals. In the Nineteenth Century Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature 1890--1899, with Supplementary Indexing, 1900--1922, ed. Helen Grant Cushing and Adah V. Morris (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1944), and in the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature (New York.: H. W. Wilson, 1904--present), music is usually listed under such headings as, "Christmas Carlos with Music," "Lullabies," "Dances with Music," "Songs with Music," "Waltzes with Music," "Hymns," "Negro Songs," "Children's Songs with Music," "National Songs," etc. Music is listed under various headings (Songs, Four-Part Songs, New Compositions, Hymn Tunes, etc.) within the general "Music" category in the Review of Reviews and World's Work Index to the Periodicals of 1890--1902 (New York: Review of Reviews Office, 1891--1903). Titles, first lines, authors, and composers of songs and other music published in many nineteenth-century magazines can be found in Series E. Songs of the American Periodical Index, or Early American Periodicals Index to 1850, ed. Nelson F. Adkins (New York: Readex Microprint, 1964). Searching for music in Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, ed. William 1. Fletcher and Franklin O. Poole (New York: Peter Smith, 1938), or C. Edward Wall, Cumulative Author Index for Poole's Index to Periodical Literature (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Pierian Press, 1971), is difficult without first knowing an author or title.
(8.)See Mark A. Radice, "Henry Purcell's Contributions to The Gentleman's Journal," BACH: The Journal of the Riemenschneider Bach Institute 9 (1978): 25--30 and 10 (1979): 26--31.
(9.)Leanne Langley interprets the printed music in the Gentleman's Journal as an aspect of its writing on opera; see "The Musical Press in Nineteenth-Century England," Notes 46 (1990): 585. The large number of songs, however, speaks more to the eighteenth-century tradition of music performance at home that was still a popular phenomenon in early nineteenth-century Britain, as satirized by Jane Austen in Pride and Prejudice (London: The Folio Society, 1975), 142--46, and described by Charlotte Bronte in Jane Eyre (New York: Random House, 1943), 133--34.
(10.)Music was included from 1737 to 1770 in the Gentleman's Magazine, from 1745 to 1775 in the London Magazine, until about 1770 in the Universal Magazine, and a few compositions appear in the early years of Town and Country Magazine. Music included from 1801 to 1811 in the Hibernian Magazine is indexed in Hand-List of Music Published in Some British and Foreign Periodicals between 1787 and 1848 now in the British Museum. Such a rich tradition of music publication in nonspecialized British periodicals belies the perception that, "[The London Magazine] included ... oddly, 245 songs." (Kennedy, "Index to Songs Published in The London Magazine," 83).
(11.)Music was frequently included in the Lady's Monthly Museum until about 1830, and until about 1825 in La Belle Assemblee. Music included from 1806 to 1809 in La Belle Assemblee is indexed in Hand-List of Music Published in Some British and Foreign Periodicals between 1787 and 1848 now in the British Museum. The history of British women's magazines is discussed by Alison Adburgham in Women in Print: Writing Women and Women's Magazines from the Restoration to the Accession of Victoria (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1972), by Cynthia L. White in Women's Magazines 1693--1968 (London: Michael Joseph, 1976), and by E. M. Palmegiano in Women and British Periodicals: 1832--1867 A Bibliography (New York: Garland Publishing, 1976).
(12.)Hans Kohring provides a guide to these periodicals in his monograph Bibliographie der Almanache, Kalender und Taschenbucher fur die Zeit von ca. 1750--1860 (Hamburg: H. Weber, 1929). See also Karl Gladt, Almanache und Taschenbucher aus Wien (Wien-Munchen: Jugend und Volk, 1971); Maria Grafin Lanckoronska and Arthur Rumann, Geschichte der deutschen Taschenbiicher und Almanache aus der klassischromantischen Zeit (Munich: Ernst Heimeran, 1954); and York-Gotthart Mix, Kalender? Ey, wie viel Kalender! Literarische Almanache zwischen Rokoko und Klassizismus (Wolfenbuttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 1986).
(13.)The gift book business in America is chronicled by Ralph Thompson, American Literary Annuals and Gift Books 1825--1865 (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1936). Only a few literary gift books included music, but among them were: The Iris: An Illuminated Souvenir for MDCCCLI (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, 1851), and The Ladies' Casket and Friendship's Gift for 1849 (New York: Rev. E. T. Winter, ). For specific contents and reel locations in the microfilm series, consult Indices to American Literary Annuals and Gift Books 1825--1865, comp. E. Bruce Kirkham and John W. Fink (New Haven: Research Publications, 1975).
(14.)Bickerstaff's Boston Almanac is included in Early American Imprints: 1639--1800, Evans Numbers 1--49197 (New York: Readex Microprint, n.d.), Evans numbers 11112, 11526, and 41898. See Clifford Shipton, The National Index of American Imprints through 1800; the Short-Title Evans (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1969); and Charles Evans, American Bibliography; a Chronological Dictionary of All Books, Pamphlets and Periodical Publications Printed in the United States of America from the Genesis of Printing in 1639 down to and including the Year 1820. With bibliographical and biographical notes, 14 vols. (1903--1959; reprint, New York: Peter Smith; Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1941--1962).
(15.)Charles Hamm, Yesterdays: Popular Song in America (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979), 1.
(16.)Music from some of these periodicals is indexed by Oscar George Theodore Sonneck in A Bibliography of Early American Secular Music (18th Century), revised by William Treat Upton (1945; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1964); and by Richard J. Wolfe in Secular Music in America 1801--1825: A Bibliography, 3 vols. (New York: New York Public Library, 1964).
(17.)A specialized study of music and its imagery in Godey's Lady's Book is provided by Koza's dissertation and summarized in her article (see fn. 5). A sociological study of the Ladies' Home Journal is found in Salme Elizabeth Harju Steinberg, "Reformer in the Marketplace: Edward W. Bok and the Ladies' Home Journal, 1889--1919" (Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1971). The history of American women's magazines and the music they contained is found in Mott and Tick, (see fn. 5) and in Helen Woodward, The Lady Persuaders (New York: Ivan Obolensky, 1960).
(18.)The repertory of Cuban magazines is described by Zoila Lapique Becali in Musica colonial cubana en las publicaciones periodicas (1812--1902), vol. 1 (Havana: Editorial Letras Cubanas, 1979). Similarly, Susana Friedmann mentions several general cultural periodicals that contained music, in "The Special Situation Regarding Music Periodicals in Colombia," Fontes Artis Musicae 38 (1991): 110--17.
(19.)Music by more than one hundred women is indexed in "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon?: Women Composers in American Magazines from Godey's to the Ladies' Home Journal," a study by this author in Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music, ed. Susan Cook and Judy Tsou (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 156--82.
(20.)Excellent studies that mention music in children's periodicals include R. Gordon Kelly, Children's Periodicals of the United States, Historical Guides to the World's periodicals and Newspapers (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984); Kirsten Drotner, English Children and their Magazines, 1751--1945 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988); Sheila A. Egoff Children's Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century: A Survey and Bibliography, Library Association Pamphlet, no. 8, (London: The Library Association, 1951); Betty Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789--1899," (Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1942); and Hubert Gobels, Zeitschriften fur die deutsche Jugend. Eine Chronographie 1772--1960 (Dortmund: Harenberg Kommunikation, 1986).
(21.)Examples include Europa (Leipzig, Stuttgart: 1835--1885). Hochland (Munich: 1903--1971), Kunstwart (Munich: 1887--1937), and La Quinzaine (Paris: 1894--1907).
(22.)See this author's "The Josef Hofmann Years at the Ladies' Home Journal," Piano Quarterly 38 (spring 1990): 25--35.
(23.)See Graziano (fn. 5).
(24.)Gabriel Mourey, "The Illustration of Music," The Studio 15 (November 1898): 96 and 98.
(25.)See this author's "Magazine Music of the Jugendstil and Expressionist Movements," Periodica Musica 9 (1991): 1--13.
(26.)See this author's "Schoenberg's Herzgewachse and the Blaue Reiter Almanac," Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute 7 (1983): 197--221.
(27.)See Romeo Arbour, Les Revues litteraires ephemeres paraissent a Paris entre 1900 et 1914: repertoire descriptif (Paris: Librairie Jose Corti, 1956), and Richard L. Admussen, Les petites Revues litteraires 1914--1939: repertoire descriptif (St. Louis: Washington University, 1970, and Paris: Librairie A. G. Nizet, 1970).
APPENDIX: PERIODICALS AVAILABLE IN REPRINT OR MICROFORM
Abbreviations for microfilm series, microfilm companies, and reprint houses are as follows:
ACR = A.C.R.P.P. (Marne-la-Vallee) AMS = AMS Press (New York) APS = American Periodicals Series (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1979) BLNL = British Library Newspaper Library (London) CH = Chadwyck-Healey (London) CM = Canadian Microfilming (Montreal) DAT = Datamics (New York) DC = Da Capo Press (New York) EAI = Early American Imprints (New York: Readex Microprint, n.d.) EAN = Early American Newspapers, 1704--1820 (New York: Readex Microprint, n.d.) EBP = Early British Periodicals (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1980) ECLP = Editions de la chronique des lettres francaises (Paris) ELP = English Literary Periodicals (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1981) GO = Georg Olms Verlag (Hildesheim) GR = Greenwood Reprint (Westport, Conn.) HK = Verlag Helmut Kupper (Dusseldorf, Munich) HOW = History of Women (Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Publications, 1983) KR = Kraus Reprint (Nendeln/Liechtenstein, Vaduz, New York) LC = Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.) NYPL = New York Public Library (New York) PM = Princeton Microfilms (Princeton, New Jersey) SR = Slatkine Reprints (Geneva) UM = University Microfilms (Ann Arbor) TITLE MICROFORM REPRINT Les Annales politiques et BLNL (1900--1922 only) litteraires Atlantic Monthly UM La Belle Assemblee EBP, reels 749--54 HOW, reels 7--13 Bickerstaff's Boston Almanac EAI, Evans numbers 11112, 11526, and 41898 Blatter fur die Kunst HK (1967) Boston Magazine APS I, reel 9 Chap-Book APS III, reel 61 AMS (1965) Dome EBP, reel 184 Form CH KR (1971) Gentleman's Journal ELP, reel 528 Gentleman's Magazine EBP, reels 81--136 Gentlemen and Ladies' Town APS I, reel 13 and Country Magazine Gil Blas Illustre DAT Godey's Lady's Book APS II, reels 772--76 and 862--80 Gottingen Musenalmanach GO (1979) Halcyon Luminary APS II, reels 112 and 464 Harper's New Monthly Magazine UM Hibernian Magazine ELP, reels 175--83, 151--54, and 173--74 L'Image ACR Journal de Paris ACR, DAT Journal Encyclopoedique DAT SR/KR (1967) Ladies' Home Journal APS III, reel 757--66 (through Nov., 1907) UM (complete) Lady's Monthly Museum ELP, reels 345--54 Life Magazine UM London Magazine ELP, reels 193--209 Lowell Offering APS II, reel 675 GR (1975) Massachusetts Magazine APS I, reels 15--16 Massachusetts Spy EAN Mercure de France ACR, LC, DAT SR (1968-- ); serie moderne, KR (1965) Le Monde Illustre DAT Monthly Chapbook NYPL KR (1967) Monthly Offering APS II, reel 1245 Montjoie! ACR New Directions in Prose KR (1967) and Poetry New York Magazine APS I, reels 21--22 or Literary Repository Pan CH KR (1978) Pennsylvania Magazine APS I, reel 24 La Plume ACTR, DAT SR (1968) Poet-Lore PM Quarto CH Religious Informer APS II, reels 197--98 Royal American Magazine APS I, reels 26 St. Nicholas APS III, reels 591--99 (through Oct., 1907) Le Samedi CM Scythe or Townsman KR (1972) Shaker or Manifesto APS III, reels 62--63 Sic CH ECLP (1973) Der Sturm DAT, NYPL, KR KR (1970--1978) Town and Country Magazine ELP, reels 672--79 Transatlantic Review NYPL KR (1967) transition NYPL, KR KR (1967) Universal Asylum and Columbian APS I, reels II and 30 Magazine Universal Magazine ELP, reels 799--815 Ver Sacrum CH Women's Franchise HOW, reel 253…