The Impact of Explicit, Self-Regulatory Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction on the Reading-Specific Self-Efficacy, Attributions, and Affect of Students with Reading Disabilities

By Nelson, Jason M.; Manset-Williamson, Genevieve | Learning Disability Quarterly, Summer 2006 | Go to article overview

The Impact of Explicit, Self-Regulatory Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction on the Reading-Specific Self-Efficacy, Attributions, and Affect of Students with Reading Disabilities


Nelson, Jason M., Manset-Williamson, Genevieve, Learning Disability Quarterly


Abstract. We compared a reading intervention that consisted of explicit, self-regulatory strategy instruction to a strategy intervention that was less explicit to determine the impact on the reading-specific self-efficacy, attributions, and affect of students with reading disabilities (RD). Participants included 20 students with RD who were entering grades 4-8. The interventions were delivered on a one-to-one basis over five weeks, four days per week, for one hour per day. Those receiving the explicit, self-regulatory strategy intervention showed greater gains in their attributions to incorrect strategy usage for reading failure than participants in the less explicit intervention. Group differences approached statistical significance on the reading self-efficacy measure, with the less explicit intervention showing higher reading self-efficacy at posttest than the explicit, self-regulatory intervention. The possibility of miscalibrated reading self-efficacy and reading skill in students with RD is discussed.

**********

Older students with reading disabilities (RD), those in the upper elementary grades and beyond, are particularly at risk for developing motivational problems related to reading. In fact, a downward trend in reading motivation with age has been found in the population at large, not just specific to students with RD (McKenna, Kear, & Ellsworth, 1995). Diminishing reading motivation is particularly stark for poor readers in the post-primary grade years. An illustrative example of the extent of these declines in reading motivation is a study by Juel (1988), who found 40% of poor readers in the fourth grade would rather clean their room than read, with one student stating, "I'd rather clean the mold around the bathtub than read" (p. 442). Decreasing reading motivation is especially alarming given that motivational and attitudinal characteristics are better predictors of reading achievement as children get older than when children are in the early elementary grades (Paris & Oka, 1989).

Young children's motivation to read is typically less affected by failure than older children's. Until about the third grade, children tend to be generally unable to measure their abilities in relation to objective criteria (Stipek, 1981). Furthermore, young children do not make a distinction between effort and ability when considering the reasons for success and failure. Therefore, in the eyes of a young child, an individual who works hard is one who has high ability (Nicholls, 1990). It is not until children are around 11 years old that they begin to clearly differentiate between ability and effort, which may lead to negative motivational outcomes for some (Nicholls, 1978). Students who have to work hard to succeed are thought to have less ability than those who expend little effort. As Pressley (1998) stated, "The older the struggling reader, the more the struggle will be interpreted as reflecting low ability with the child unmotivated to learn to read" (p. 233).

Concurrent with these developmentally appropriate changes in attributional thinking, older children also experience declines in egocentric viewpoints and increase their use of social comparison when evaluating their abilities (Piaget, 1965). Social comparison becomes particularly salient during the upper-elementary years due to an increase in classroom competition (Harter, Whitesell, & Kowalski, 1992).

Along with a natural decline in reading motivation, students are challenged with a more rigorous curriculum once they exit the early elementary years. No longer is instruction focused on learning to read; emphasis is now placed on reading to learn (Allington & Johnston, 2002). Once students enter the fourth grade, they are predominantly expected to work with expository text rather than the narrative text of their earlier school years (Wilson & Rupley, 1997).

Despite this increase in complexity of text, conventional instruction does not involve the use of comprehension instruction to meet the demands of expository material. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Impact of Explicit, Self-Regulatory Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction on the Reading-Specific Self-Efficacy, Attributions, and Affect of Students with Reading Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.