Adaptive Learning Networks: Developing Resource Management Knowledge through Social Learning Forums

By Davidson-Hunt, Iain J. | Human Ecology, August 2006 | Go to article overview

Adaptive Learning Networks: Developing Resource Management Knowledge through Social Learning Forums


Davidson-Hunt, Iain J., Human Ecology


Published online: 19 September 2006

The purpose of this paper is to explore adaptive learning networks as a contemporary means by which new resource management knowledge can develop through social learning forums. The paper draws upon recent discussions within two disparate literatures on indigenous knowledge and network theory and is grounded in fieldwork with two Anishinaabe First Nations in northwestern Ontario. The paper has three objectives. First, problematize the principle of representation as a basic way of including the knowledge of indigenous peoples within natural resource and environmental management. Second, utilize network theory as a way to weave together adaptive learning by individuals into a cross-cultural social learning process. Finally, propose an adaptive natural resources and environmental framework that brings together, through a social learning process, the different ways individuals, indigenous peoples and resource managers, perceive environmental change.

KEY WORDS: resource management; adaptive learning; social learning; indigenous knowledge; networks.

INTRODUCTION

The adaptive management literature has suggested that natural resource and environmental management (NREM) organizations include social learning processes so that new resource management knowledge can be developed in response to environmental change (Holling, 1978). Adaptive management has often been operationalized through the use of monitoring systems that include measurable categories known as criteria and indicators (C&I) (Duinker and Trevisan, 2003; Walters, 1986). This management framework requires that all decision-makers are in agreement that a category and corresponding measurement signify something that warrants a change in management practice and/or individual behaviour. As NREM frameworks have begun to include scientists from a greater diversity of disciplines, and citizens with a variety of world views, the backbones of adaptive management, scientific authority and C&I, have become problematic.

The inclusion of adaptive management into new contexts of shared NREM decision-making has been referred to as adaptive co-management (Olsson et al., 2004a,b). One of the emerging challenges of including a diversity of actors in the development of new NREM knowledge is how to facilitate social learning in a pluralistic context (Folke et al., 2003). How do two societies, of different cultural backgrounds, agree upon the signifiers of environmental change? How do they agree that such change is positive or negative? How can they bring their knowledge of environmental change into a societal learning process that develops new NREM knowledge?

There is a large literature that has considered how to create bridges, or linkages, between the resource management knowledge of indigenous peoples and people working within resource management agencies of nation states (Berkes, 1999; Williams and Hunn, 1982). Early efforts focused on the documentation of knowledge and the consideration of universal categories of environmental perception that were common to many societies (see Berlin, 1992). Recent work has turned to consider how such categories could be included as criteria and indicators within NREM frameworks (Natcher and Hickey, 2002). However, other work has noted that equally important, to the inclusion of one's knowledge within NREM framework, is the ability to directly bring one's knowledge into the processes by which new knowledge is produced (Agrawal, 1995, 2003).

The direct participation of people within knowledge producing processes is the first step in developing new NREM frameworks. However, for many indigenous societies, the problem is deeper than a simple resolution that would be based upon an idea of representative seats for indigenous people within a NREM process. The problem, as I will discuss in this paper, is that indigenous knowledge of environmental change is produced paper, out of the direct relationships between knowledgeable people and their environments (Davidson-Hunt and Berkes, 2003a). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Adaptive Learning Networks: Developing Resource Management Knowledge through Social Learning Forums
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.