Perceived Parent-Child Relational Qualities and Parental Behavioral and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

By Shek, Daniel T. L. | Adolescence, Fall 2006 | Go to article overview

Perceived Parent-Child Relational Qualities and Parental Behavioral and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong


Shek, Daniel T. L., Adolescence


Family researchers and practitioners have commonly described parenting in terms of the degree of control and autonomy given to the child by the parents. Despite the popular use of the term in the literature, researchers have argued that it is necessary to differentiate different types of parental control (Barber, 1996, 2002; Steinberg, 1990), including both psychological and behavioral. Psychological control refers to "parents' attempt to control the child's activities in ways that negatively affect the child's psychological world and thereby undermines the child's psychological development" (Smetana & Daddis, 2002, p. 563) which includes constraining verbal expression, invalidating feelings, personal attack, guilt induction, love withdrawal, and erratic emotional behavior. Barber (1996) pointed out that psychological control is a "neglected construct" in parenting and that "there is little research specifically measuring psychological control and its covariates" (p. 3313).

On the other hand, behavioral control refers to "rules, regulations, and restrictions that parents have for their children" commonly conceptualilzed in terms of parental monitoring (e.g., Pettit et al., 2001; Smetana & Daddis, 2002). Unfortunately, while monitoring means surveillance and/or tracking (Dishion & McMahon, 1998), it has been commonly operationalized in terms of parental knowledge of children's activities (Crouter & Head, 2002; Kerr & Stattin, 2000). Stattin and Kerr (2000) argued that parental monitoring (i.e., surveillance) is different from parental knowledge of children's activities because parental knowledge does not necessarily involve monitoring activities and that children's voluntary disclosure of information is crucial.

Conceptually speaking, there is a need to recognize the multi-dimensional nature of parental behavioral control (Smetana & Daddis, 2002) and to differentiate between parental monitoring and parental knowledge of children's activities. An integration of the existing research findings shows that at least five different aspects of parental behavioral control (i.e., parental attempt to control and manage the child's behavior) should be differentiated: (1) parental knowledge (i.e., how much the parent knows about the situation of the child); (2) parental expectations (i.e., parental rules and expectations of the parents); (3) parental monitoring (i.e., parental surveillance and tracking and whether the parent takes the initiative to understand the child); (4) parental discipline (reward and punishment of the child in relation to parental expectations); and (5) global parental control with reference to some of the existing models of parenting, such as parental demandingness (e.g., Maccoby & Martin, 1983).

Among the studies that have examined parental behavior and psychological control, few have examined parental control and parent-child relational qualities. In their review of the related studies in this area, Crouter and Head (2002) criticized the fact that "many studies of parental monitoring or knowledge have examined possible antecedents without reference to the quality of the parent-child relationship" (p. 473) and argued that "it is impossible to conceptualize the possible antecedents of parental monitoring or parental knowledge without acknowledging that the quality of the parent-child relationship is the fundamental platform that gives rise to them" (p. 472). Based on the common belief that adolescents do not want to be controlled, it would be expected that higher parental control would be related to poorer parent-child relational qualities. Unfortunately, this expectation has not been rigorously tested. On the other hand, because parental psychological control involves intrusion into the psychological world of the child, it is expected that this would impair parent-child relational qualities. Again, few studies have examined the relationship between parental psychological control and parent-child relational processes. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Perceived Parent-Child Relational Qualities and Parental Behavioral and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.