Present Day Philosophies of Education

By Ediger, Marlow | Journal of Instructional Psychology, September 2006 | Go to article overview

Present Day Philosophies of Education


Ediger, Marlow, Journal of Instructional Psychology


Presently, there are competing philosophies of education which need comparison. Two philosophies will be compared which are at opposite ends of the continuum. They are distinctly different. And yet, both schools of thought have their disciples. Each of the two will be discussed in terms of its essential features and then there will be selected contrasts made.

Measurement Philosophy

Advocates of measurement philosophy believe strongly in the late E. L Thorndike's (1874-1949) beliefs, "Whatever exists, exists in some amount, and if it exists in some amount, it can be measured." The measurement movement has been very strong in ascertaining how much pupils learn with its annual testing in grades three through eight and an exit test (No child Left Behind, passed by Congress and signed by the President in 20020. Thus, state mandated objectives and testing are the law of the land, if each state wants to receive federal aid for their respective schools. Each state emphasizes that pupil progress may be monitored through testing. Teachers supposedly have objectives developed by the state to provide guidelines for teaching.

There are assumptions made in that what is tested represents the basics in reading and mathematics. These two curriculum areas only, comprise what is tested in to ascertain pupil progress. All pupils are to be "proficient" in reading and mathematics by the year 2014. These curriculum areas are necessary for all to reveal optimum achievement. The others appear to be peripheral.

Standardized tests have the same subject matter and the same time limits for their taking. All conditions are to be kept the same for all pupils regardless of ability levels, or handicaps possessed. Since objective test items only, are used in standardized tests, machine scoring is possible of mass numbers of tests. Answers are either right or wrong. Pupils fill in the bubble on the answer sheet for what is perceived to be the correct answer. Test results may indicate what percentile rank the child is on. They might also indicate achievement with a grade equivalent.

Measurement theory emphasizes:

* precision of test results with an exact numeral;

* pupils compared with each other in terms of percentile ranks or grade equivalents;

* schools and school districts being compared;

* failing schools being identifiable, using test results; and

* a single test providing proof of achievement or lack thereof.

Standardized tests indicate a form of behaviorism with its uniformity of conditions for test taking, numerical test results, and interpretation of achievement. The late B. F. Skinner with his advocacy of programmed learning developed tenets of behaviorism. Dr. Skinner believed that all subject matter could be broken up into component parts, no matter how complex the original content. Thus, the inherent ideas might be simplified in order to have a starting point for the learner. The pupil then reads a sentence or more from the programmed textbook or computer screen. In sequence, the pupil responds to a multiple choice test item. If correct, the pupil feels rewarded. If incorrect, the pupil sees the correct answer and is also ready to read the succeeding content followed again with a response to a multiple choice test item, and then evaluation to notice if the answer given was correct. The program emphasizes read, respond, and check sequentially and continually.

Dr. Skinner believed that pupils make few errors when pursuing a program. With good programs, a pupil should be successful ninety five percent of the time in responses given. Each program moves forward very slowly in complexity of ideas presented. Pupils make few errors in pursuing a program. The pupil knows immediately if he/she is correct in responding to a test item covering content read. If an incorrect answer was given, the pupil sees the correct answer on the monitor. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Present Day Philosophies of Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.