Job Satisfaction among High School Athletic Administrators

By Green, Gregory; Reese, Shirley A. | Education, Winter 2006 | Go to article overview

Job Satisfaction among High School Athletic Administrators


Green, Gregory, Reese, Shirley A., Education


Coaching and supervising high school sport programs can be a rewarding but stressful career.

Many researchers have identified a close relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, or how one feels about the job(Burke 1971; Buck, 1972; Howard, 1978). Most studies of job satisfaction in education have tended to focus on teachers. Much less attention has been paid to the effects of a stressful environment on the effectiveness of high school coaches and other athletic administrators, particularly those serving in a dual or multi-role capacity. There is not an abundance of data that has indicated a strong relationship between job satisfaction, performance, stress, and health. Nevertheless, the job satisfaction problems often seen in the business world, are also present in the highly visible, competitive world of athletics.

Hoppock (1935) defined job-satisfaction as any combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that causes a person to say "I am satisfied with my job." Similarly, Locke (1969) viewed overall job satisfaction as "the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one's values" (p.316). He explained that values exist in relation to their perceived effects on the individual. Thus, "the causes of job satisfaction are not in the job nor solely in man but lie in the relationship between them" (p.319).

Davis (1981) surveyed 246 public school teacher/coaches to determine their job satisfaction levels. The researcher's survey identified relationships with coworkers and challenging work as being more valuable than resource adequacy or financial rewards. The investigator further reported that the work climate, morale, and communication patterns also affected overall job satisfaction.

Parkhouse and Johnson conducted a study of 37 departments and 229 athletic administrators from large schools throughout the nation. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was used to evaluate job satisfaction levels. Personal growth and autonomy were the top items indicated or desired for high job satisfaction.

The above studies gives support to Herzberg et. al., (1959) theory which indicated that factors relating to job satisfaction were intrinsic (e.g., the work itself, personal growth and development) in nature. Those factors that were concerned with job content and job dissatisfaction were extrinsic in nature. These studies were further supported by the research of Johnson, Oliver, Herman, & Levick (1982). They noted that the work environment, relationship with co-workers, and a person's perceived position within the organization may affect job satisfaction levels the most.

Much of the literature has indicated that much of the dissatisfaction of athletic administrators comes from performing dual or multi-roles. Most athletic administrators including coaches are required to perform some teaching duties in their work setting. Rog (1984) emphasized that teaching and coaching are separate jobs with some very large and critical differences. An athletic administrator job duties include planning and conducting interscholastic practice sessions, motivating highly skilled athletes, preparing the athletic program budget, fund-raising, scheduling games, teaching, and many other pertinent duties.

Many educators use the term "role conflict" to identify any situations where there are incompatible expectations for the different roles--for example, high expectation for the athletic programs and lower expectation in the academic programs. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Job Satisfaction among High School Athletic Administrators
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.