New Neurons at Risk: Genotoxicants and Brain Development

By Hood, Ernie | Environmental Health Perspectives, November 2006 | Go to article overview

New Neurons at Risk: Genotoxicants and Brain Development


Hood, Ernie, Environmental Health Perspectives


Neurodevelopmental disorders such as learning disabilities, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorders affect an estimated 5-10% of the 4 million babies born in the United States annually. In a report released in 2000, the National Research Council concluded that 3% of these disorders are the direct result of environmental exposures to neurotoxicants, with another 25% arising from the interaction between such exposures and genetic susceptibility. Investigators have shown that many of these long-term adverse outcomes can be attributed to genetic damage to immature neurons in the developing brain related to exposure to genotoxicants, chemicals that disrupt the complex, delicate cellular process that regulates development of a fully functional brain. Although the precise mechanisms involved are still poorly understood, scientists are now starting to unravel the molecular ravages caused by genotoxicants [EHP 114:1703-1712; Kisby et al.].

As reported in this month's issue, a research group exposed cultures of immature neurons known as granule cells and the more developed and more abundant astrocytes to sublethal doses of two well-characterized alkylating genotoxicants: methylazoxymethanol (MAM), a highly toxic compound synthesized from the poison found in plants called cycads, and nitrogen mustard (HN2), a chemotherapeutic agent. The team then analyzed the cultures for cell viability, DNA damage, markers of apoptosis, and corresponding gene expression patterns. The intent of the research is ultimately to identify the key molecular networks that are targeted by genotoxicants, in order to understand how such agents influence brain development. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

New Neurons at Risk: Genotoxicants and Brain Development
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.